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Article

Carriage and Gene Content Variability of the pESI-Like Plasmid Associated with Salmonella Infantis Recently Established in United States Poultry Production

1
Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Athens, GA 30605, USA
2
Eastern Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Athens, GA 30605, USA
3
Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
4
Weems Design Studio, Inc., Suwanee, GA 30024, USA
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(12), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121516
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Zoonotic Foodborne Pathogens)
Salmonella Infantis carrying extended spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M-65 on a pESI-like megaplasmid has recently emerged in United States poultry. In order to determine the carriage rate and gene content variability of this plasmid in U.S. Salmonella Infantis, whole genome sequences of Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in the U.S. and internationally containing the pESI-like plasmid were analyzed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) identified 654 product sampling isolates containing pESI-like plasmids through hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) verification testing in 2017 and 2018. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified 55 isolates with pESI-like plasmids in 2016–2018 through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Approximately 49% of pESI-like plasmids from FSIS verification isolates and 71% from CDC NARMS contained blaCTX-M-65. Pan-plasmid genome analysis was also performed. All plasmids contained traN and more than 95% contained 172 other conserved genes; 61% contained blaCTX-M-65. In a hierarchical clustering analysis, some plasmids from U.S. animal sources clustered together and some plasmids from South America clustered together, possibly indicating multiple plasmid lineages. However, most plasmids contained similar genes regardless of origin. Carriage of the pESI-like plasmid in U.S. appears to be limited to Salmonella Infantis and carriage rates increased from 2017 to 2018. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; infantis; plasmid; antibiotic resistance Salmonella; infantis; plasmid; antibiotic resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

McMillan, E.A.; Wasilenko, J.L.; Tagg, K.A.; Chen, J.C.; Simmons, M.; Gupta, S.K.; Tillman, G.E.; Folster, J.; Jackson, C.R.; Frye, J.G. Carriage and Gene Content Variability of the pESI-Like Plasmid Associated with Salmonella Infantis Recently Established in United States Poultry Production. Genes 2020, 11, 1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121516

AMA Style

McMillan EA, Wasilenko JL, Tagg KA, Chen JC, Simmons M, Gupta SK, Tillman GE, Folster J, Jackson CR, Frye JG. Carriage and Gene Content Variability of the pESI-Like Plasmid Associated with Salmonella Infantis Recently Established in United States Poultry Production. Genes. 2020; 11(12):1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121516

Chicago/Turabian Style

McMillan, Elizabeth A., Jamie L. Wasilenko, Kaitlin A. Tagg, Jessica C. Chen, Mustafa Simmons, Sushim K. Gupta, Glenn E. Tillman, Jason Folster, Charlene R. Jackson, and Jonathan G. Frye 2020. "Carriage and Gene Content Variability of the pESI-Like Plasmid Associated with Salmonella Infantis Recently Established in United States Poultry Production" Genes 11, no. 12: 1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121516

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