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Pharmacogenomics for Primary Care: An Overview
Open AccessArticle

Using Personal Genomic Data within Primary Care: A Bioinformatics Approach to Pharmacogenomics

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Coöperatie 4LifeSupport Europa u.a., 2321 JW Leiden, The Netherlands
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4MedBox, 2321 JW Leiden, The Netherlands
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Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, The Netherlands
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Departments of Human Genetics and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
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Human Genetics Department, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
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Schluss, 1013 KS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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General Practitioner, 2313 AX Leiden, The Netherlands
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
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Department of Public Health and Primary Care (PHEG), Leiden University Medical Centre, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
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National eHealth Living Lab (NELL), 2333 ZD Leiden, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(12), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121443
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
One application of personalized medicine is the tailoring of medication to the individual, so that the medication will have the highest chance of success. In order to individualize medication, one must have a complete inventory of all current pharmaceutical compounds (a detailed formulary) combined with pharmacogenetic datasets, the genetic makeup of the patient, their (medical) family history and other health-related data. For healthcare professionals to make the best use of this information, it must be visualized in a way that makes the most medically relevant data accessible for their decision-making. Similarly, to enable bioinformatics analysis of these data, it must be prepared and provided through an interface for controlled computational analysis. Due to the high degree of personal information gathered for such initiatives, privacy-sensitive implementation choices and ethical standards are paramount. The Personal Genetic Locker project provides an approach to enable the use of personal genomic data in primary care. In this paper, we provide a description of the Personal Genetic Locker project and show its utility through a use case based on open standards, which is illustrated by the 4MedBox system. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacogenomics; primary care; genomics; research; ethics; Personal Genetic Locker; personalized medicine pharmacogenomics; primary care; genomics; research; ethics; Personal Genetic Locker; personalized medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Overkleeft, R.; Tommel, J.; Evers, A.W.M.; den Dunnen, J.T.; Roos, M.; Hoefmans, M.-J.; Schrader, W.E.; Swen, J.J.; Numans, M.E.; Houwink, E.J.F. Using Personal Genomic Data within Primary Care: A Bioinformatics Approach to Pharmacogenomics. Genes 2020, 11, 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121443

AMA Style

Overkleeft R, Tommel J, Evers AWM, den Dunnen JT, Roos M, Hoefmans M-J, Schrader WE, Swen JJ, Numans ME, Houwink EJF. Using Personal Genomic Data within Primary Care: A Bioinformatics Approach to Pharmacogenomics. Genes. 2020; 11(12):1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Overkleeft, Rick; Tommel, Judith; Evers, Andrea W.M.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Roos, Marco; Hoefmans, Marie-José; Schrader, Walter E.; Swen, Jesse J.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Houwink, Elisa J.F. 2020. "Using Personal Genomic Data within Primary Care: A Bioinformatics Approach to Pharmacogenomics" Genes 11, no. 12: 1443. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11121443

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