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ORCAE-AOCC: A Centralized Portal for the Annotation of African Orphan Crop Genomes

Draft Genomes of Two Artocarpus Plants, Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis)

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genomics, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
Center for Microbial Ecology and Genomics (CMEG), Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa
African Orphan Crops Consortium, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi 00100, Kenya
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Ghent, Zwijnaarde 9052, Belgium
Center for Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Ghent, Zwijnaarde 9052, Belgium
Biotechnology Platform, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria 0110, South Africa
Chicago Botanic Garden, Negaunee Institute for Plant Conservation Science and Action, Glencoe, IL 60022, USA
Plant Biology and Conservation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Seed Biotechnology Center, University of California, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Genes 2020, 11(1), 27;
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Orphan Crop Genetics and Genomics)
Two of the most economically important plants in the Artocarpus genus are jackfruit (A. heterophyllus Lam.) and breadfruit (A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg). Both species are long-lived trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in their native regions. Today they are grown throughout tropical to subtropical areas as an important source of starch and other valuable nutrients. There are hundreds of breadfruit varieties that are native to Oceania, of which the most commonly distributed types are seedless triploids. Jackfruit is likely native to the Western Ghats of India and produces one of the largest tree-borne fruit structures (reaching up to 45 kg). To-date, there is limited genomic information for these two economically important species. Here, we generated 273 Gb and 227 Gb of raw data from jackfruit and breadfruit, respectively. The high-quality reads from jackfruit were assembled into 162,440 scaffolds totaling 982 Mb with 35,858 genes. Similarly, the breadfruit reads were assembled into 180,971 scaffolds totaling 833 Mb with 34,010 genes. A total of 2822 and 2034 expanded gene families were found in jackfruit and breadfruit, respectively, enriched in pathways including starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, and others. The copy number of several starch synthesis-related genes were found to be increased in jackfruit and breadfruit compared to closely-related species, and the tissue-specific expression might imply their sugar-rich and starch-rich characteristics. Overall, the publication of high-quality genomes for jackfruit and breadfruit provides information about their specific composition and the underlying genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: jackfruit; breadfruit; A. heterophyllus; A. altilis; starch synthesis jackfruit; breadfruit; A. heterophyllus; A. altilis; starch synthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sahu, S.K.; Liu, M.; Yssel, A.; Kariba, R.; Muthemba, S.; Jiang, S.; Song, B.; Hendre, P.S.; Muchugi, A.; Jamnadass, R.; Kao, S.-M.; Featherston, J.; Zerega, N.J.C.; Xu, X.; Yang, H.; Van Deynze, A.; de Peer, Y.V.; Liu, X.; Liu, H. Draft Genomes of Two Artocarpus Plants, Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis). Genes 2020, 11, 27.

AMA Style

Sahu SK, Liu M, Yssel A, Kariba R, Muthemba S, Jiang S, Song B, Hendre PS, Muchugi A, Jamnadass R, Kao S-M, Featherston J, Zerega NJC, Xu X, Yang H, Van Deynze A, de Peer YV, Liu X, Liu H. Draft Genomes of Two Artocarpus Plants, Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis). Genes. 2020; 11(1):27.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sahu, Sunil K., Min Liu, Anna Yssel, Robert Kariba, Samuel Muthemba, Sanjie Jiang, Bo Song, Prasad S. Hendre, Alice Muchugi, Ramni Jamnadass, Shu-Min Kao, Jonathan Featherston, Nyree J.C. Zerega, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Allen Van Deynze, Yves V. de Peer, Xin Liu, and Huan Liu. 2020. "Draft Genomes of Two Artocarpus Plants, Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis)" Genes 11, no. 1: 27.

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