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Open AccessArticle

Draft Genomes of Two Artocarpus Plants, Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis)

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BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
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State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genomics, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
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Center for Microbial Ecology and Genomics (CMEG), Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa
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African Orphan Crops Consortium, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Ghent, Zwijnaarde 9052, Belgium
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Center for Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Ghent, Zwijnaarde 9052, Belgium
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Biotechnology Platform, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria 0110, South Africa
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Chicago Botanic Garden, Negaunee Institute for Plant Conservation Science and Action, Glencoe, IL 60022, USA
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Plant Biology and Conservation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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Seed Biotechnology Center, University of California, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Genes 2020, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11010027
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Orphan Crop Genetics and Genomics)
Two of the most economically important plants in the Artocarpus genus are jackfruit (A. heterophyllus Lam.) and breadfruit (A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg). Both species are long-lived trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in their native regions. Today they are grown throughout tropical to subtropical areas as an important source of starch and other valuable nutrients. There are hundreds of breadfruit varieties that are native to Oceania, of which the most commonly distributed types are seedless triploids. Jackfruit is likely native to the Western Ghats of India and produces one of the largest tree-borne fruit structures (reaching up to 45 kg). To-date, there is limited genomic information for these two economically important species. Here, we generated 273 Gb and 227 Gb of raw data from jackfruit and breadfruit, respectively. The high-quality reads from jackfruit were assembled into 162,440 scaffolds totaling 982 Mb with 35,858 genes. Similarly, the breadfruit reads were assembled into 180,971 scaffolds totaling 833 Mb with 34,010 genes. A total of 2822 and 2034 expanded gene families were found in jackfruit and breadfruit, respectively, enriched in pathways including starch and sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, and others. The copy number of several starch synthesis-related genes were found to be increased in jackfruit and breadfruit compared to closely-related species, and the tissue-specific expression might imply their sugar-rich and starch-rich characteristics. Overall, the publication of high-quality genomes for jackfruit and breadfruit provides information about their specific composition and the underlying genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: jackfruit; breadfruit; A. heterophyllus; A. altilis; starch synthesis jackfruit; breadfruit; A. heterophyllus; A. altilis; starch synthesis
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Sahu, S.K.; Liu, M.; Yssel, A.; Kariba, R.; Muthemba, S.; Jiang, S.; Song, B.; Hendre, P.S.; Muchugi, A.; Jamnadass, R.; Kao, S.-M.; Featherston, J.; Zerega, N.J.C.; Xu, X.; Yang, H.; Van Deynze, A.; de Peer, Y.V.; Liu, X.; Liu, H. Draft Genomes of Two Artocarpus Plants, Jackfruit (A. heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis). Genes 2020, 11, 27.

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