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Chromosomics: Bridging the Gap between Genomes and Chromosomes

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2617, Australia
Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia
Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, 1 William St Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
Institute for Systems Genomics and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
Laboratório de Citogenética de Peixes, Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP 13565-905, Brazil
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Osaka, Japan
School of Life Sciences, LaTrobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3168, Australia
School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ, UK
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic
Amphibian Research Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics & Comparative Genomics (ACCG), Department of Genetics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7000, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2019, 10(8), 627;
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms Driving Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Architecture)
The recent advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling a rapid increase in the number of genomes being sequenced. However, many fundamental questions in genome biology remain unanswered, because sequence data alone is unable to provide insight into how the genome is organised into chromosomes, the position and interaction of those chromosomes in the cell, and how chromosomes and their interactions with each other change in response to environmental stimuli or over time. The intimate relationship between DNA sequence and chromosome structure and function highlights the need to integrate genomic and cytogenetic data to more comprehensively understand the role genome architecture plays in genome plasticity. We propose adoption of the term ‘chromosomics’ as an approach encompassing genome sequencing, cytogenetics and cell biology, and present examples of where chromosomics has already led to novel discoveries, such as the sex-determining gene in eutherian mammals. More importantly, we look to the future and the questions that could be answered as we enter into the chromosomics revolution, such as the role of chromosome rearrangements in speciation and the role more rapidly evolving regions of the genome, like centromeres, play in genome plasticity. However, for chromosomics to reach its full potential, we need to address several challenges, particularly the training of a new generation of cytogeneticists, and the commitment to a closer union among the research areas of genomics, cytogenetics, cell biology and bioinformatics. Overcoming these challenges will lead to ground-breaking discoveries in understanding genome evolution and function. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytogenetics; sex chromosomes; chromosome rearrangements; genome plasticity; centromere; genome biology; evolution cytogenetics; sex chromosomes; chromosome rearrangements; genome plasticity; centromere; genome biology; evolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deakin, J.E.; Potter, S.; O’Neill, R.; Ruiz-Herrera, A.; Cioffi, M.B.; Eldridge, M.D.B.; Fukui, K.; Marshall Graves, J.A.; Griffin, D.; Grutzner, F.; Kratochvíl, L.; Miura, I.; Rovatsos, M.; Srikulnath, K.; Wapstra, E.; Ezaz, T. Chromosomics: Bridging the Gap between Genomes and Chromosomes. Genes 2019, 10, 627.

AMA Style

Deakin JE, Potter S, O’Neill R, Ruiz-Herrera A, Cioffi MB, Eldridge MDB, Fukui K, Marshall Graves JA, Griffin D, Grutzner F, Kratochvíl L, Miura I, Rovatsos M, Srikulnath K, Wapstra E, Ezaz T. Chromosomics: Bridging the Gap between Genomes and Chromosomes. Genes. 2019; 10(8):627.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deakin, Janine E.; Potter, Sally; O’Neill, Rachel; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Cioffi, Marcelo B.; Eldridge, Mark D.B.; Fukui, Kichi; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Griffin, Darren; Grutzner, Frank; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Miura, Ikuo; Rovatsos, Michail; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Wapstra, Erik; Ezaz, Tariq. 2019. "Chromosomics: Bridging the Gap between Genomes and Chromosomes" Genes 10, no. 8: 627.

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