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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Pharmacogenomic and Pharmacotranscriptomic Profiling of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Paving the Way to Personalized Treatment

1
Laboratory for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
University Children’s Hospital, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030191
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine)
Personalized medicine is focused on research disciplines which contribute to the individualization of therapy, like pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy of childhood. It is one of the pediatric malignancies with the highest cure rate, but still a lethal outcome due to therapy accounts for 1–3% of deaths. Further improvement of treatment protocols is needed through the implementation of pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics. Emerging high-throughput technologies, including microarrays and next-generation sequencing, have provided an enormous amount of molecular data with the potential to be implemented in childhood ALL treatment protocols. In the current review, we summarized the contribution of these novel technologies to the pharmacogenomics and pharmacotranscriptomics of childhood ALL. We have presented data on molecular markers responsible for the efficacy, side effects, and toxicity of the drugs commonly used for childhood ALL treatment, i.e., glucocorticoids, vincristine, asparaginase, anthracyclines, thiopurines, and methotrexate. Big data was generated using high-throughput technologies, but their implementation in clinical practice is poor. Research efforts should be focused on data analysis and designing prediction models using machine learning algorithms. Bioinformatics tools and the implementation of artificial i Lack of association of the CEP72 rs924607 TT genotype with intelligence are expected to open the door wide for personalized medicine in the clinical practice of childhood ALL. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacogenomics; pharmacotranscriptomics; high-throughput analysis; childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia pharmacogenomics; pharmacotranscriptomics; high-throughput analysis; childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavlovic, S.; Kotur, N.; Stankovic, B.; Zukic, B.; Gasic, V.; Dokmanovic, L. Pharmacogenomic and Pharmacotranscriptomic Profiling of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Paving the Way to Personalized Treatment. Genes 2019, 10, 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030191

AMA Style

Pavlovic S, Kotur N, Stankovic B, Zukic B, Gasic V, Dokmanovic L. Pharmacogenomic and Pharmacotranscriptomic Profiling of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Paving the Way to Personalized Treatment. Genes. 2019; 10(3):191. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030191

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavlovic, Sonja; Kotur, Nikola; Stankovic, Biljana; Zukic, Branka; Gasic, Vladimir; Dokmanovic, Lidija. 2019. "Pharmacogenomic and Pharmacotranscriptomic Profiling of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Paving the Way to Personalized Treatment" Genes 10, no. 3: 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10030191

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