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Open AccessArticle

Massive Loss of Olfactory Receptors But Not Trace Amine-Associated Receptors in the World’s Deepest-Living Fish (Pseudoliparis swirei)

by Haifeng Jiang 1,2,3, Kang Du 1, Xiaoni Gan 1,4, Liandong Yang 1,* and Shunping He 4,5,*
1
The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150070, China
4
Institute of Deep Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China
5
Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(11), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10110910
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 2 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Population and Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics)
Olfactory receptor repertoires show highly dynamic evolution associated with ecological adaptations in different species. The Mariana snailfish (Pseudoliparis swirei) living below a depth of 6000 m in the Mariana Trench evolved degraded vision and occupies a specific feeding habitat in a dark, low-food environment. However, whether such adaptations involve adaptive changes in the chemosensory receptor repertoire is not known. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the olfactory receptor (OR) and trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) gene repertoires in nine teleosts with a focus on the evolutionary divergence between the Mariana snailfish and its shallow-sea relative, Tanaka’s snailfish (Liparis tanakae). We found many fewer functional OR genes and a significantly higher fraction of pseudogenes in the Mariana snailfish, but the numbers of functional TAAR genes in the two species were comparable. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the expansion patterns of the gene families were shared by the two species, but that Mariana snailfish underwent massive gene losses in its OR repertoire. Despite an overall decreased size in OR subfamilies and a reduced number of TAAR subfamilies in the Mariana snailfish, expansion of certain subfamilies was observed. Selective pressure analysis indicated greatly relaxed selective strength in ORs but a slightly enhanced selective strength in TAARs of Mariana snailfish. Overall, our study reveals simplified but specific OR and TAAR repertoires in the Mariana snailfish shaped by natural selection with respect to ecological adaptations in the hadal environment. This is the first study on the chemosensation evolution in vertebrates living in the hadal zone, which could provide new insights into evolutionary adaptation to the hadal environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mariana snailfish (Pseudoliparis swirei); olfactory receptor; hadal trench; adaptation Mariana snailfish (Pseudoliparis swirei); olfactory receptor; hadal trench; adaptation
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Jiang, H.; Du, K.; Gan, X.; Yang, L.; He, S. Massive Loss of Olfactory Receptors But Not Trace Amine-Associated Receptors in the World’s Deepest-Living Fish (Pseudoliparis swirei). Genes 2019, 10, 910.

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