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Open AccessArticle

Environmental Conditions May Shape the Patterns of Genomic Variations in Leishmania panamensis

1
Centro de Biología Celular y Molecular de Enfermedades, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT AIP), Panama 0801, Panama
2
Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 522510, India
3
Departamento de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Latina de Panamá, Panama 0801, Panama
4
Escuela de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad de Panamá, Panama 0801, Panama
5
Unidad Clínica de Investigación, Clínica de Medicina Tropical, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud (ICGES), Panama 0801, Panama
6
Hospital Regional Dr. Rafael Hernández, Caja de Seguro Social, Chiriquí 0401, Panama
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to the article.
Genes 2019, 10(11), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10110838
Received: 21 August 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Leishmania)
Due to the absence of transcriptional regulation of gene expression in Leishmania parasites, it is now well accepted that several forms of genomic variations modulate the levels of critical proteins through changes in gene dosage. We previously observed many of these variations in our reference laboratory strain of L. panamensis (PSC-1 strain), including chromosomes with an increased somy and the presence of a putative linear minichromosome derived from chromosome 34. Here, we compared the previously described genomic variations with those occurring after exposure of this strain to increasing concentrations of trivalent antimony (SbIII), as well as those present in two geographically unrelated clinical isolates of L. panamensis. We observed changes in the somy of several chromosomes, amplifications of several chromosomal regions, and copy number variations in gene arrays after exposure to SbIII. Occurrence of amplifications potentially beneficial for the Sb-resistant phenotype appears to be associated with the loss of other forms of amplification, such as the linear minichromosome. In contrast, we found no evidence of changes in somy or amplification of relatively large chromosomal regions in the clinical isolates. In these isolates, the predominant amplifications appear to be those that generate genes arrays; however, in many cases, the amplified arrays have a notably higher number of copies than those from the untreated and Sb-treated laboratory samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leishmania panamensis; genomic variations; antimony resistance Leishmania panamensis; genomic variations; antimony resistance
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Restrepo, C.M.; Llanes, A.; Cedeño, E.M.; Chang, J.H.; Álvarez, J.; Ríos, M.; Penagos, H.; Suárez, J.A.; Lleonart, R. Environmental Conditions May Shape the Patterns of Genomic Variations in Leishmania panamensis. Genes 2019, 10, 838.

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