Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease that includes both hereditary and sporadic types of tumors. Tumor initiation and growth is driven by mutational or epigenetic changes that alter the function or expression of multiple genes. The genes predominantly encode components of various intracellular signaling cascades. In this review, we present mouse intestinal cancer models that include alterations in the Wnt, Hippo, p53, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathways; models of impaired DNA mismatch repair and chemically induced tumorigenesis are included. Based on their molecular biology characteristics and mutational and epigenetic status, human colorectal carcinomas were divided into four so-called consensus molecular subtype (CMS) groups. It was shown subsequently that the CMS classification system could be applied to various cell lines derived from intestinal tumors and tumor-derived organoids. Although the CMS system facilitates characterization of human CRC, individual mouse models were not assigned to some of the CMS groups. Thus, we also indicate the possible assignment of described animal models to the CMS group. This might be helpful for selection of a suitable mouse strain to study a particular type of CRC.
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