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Article

The Amazonian Red Side-Necked Turtle Rhinemys rufipes (Spix, 1824) (Testudines, Chelidae) Has a GSD Sex-Determining Mechanism with an Ancient XY Sex Microchromosome System

1
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Av. André Araújo 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus CEP 69067-375, Brazil
2
Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos SP 13565-090, Brazil
3
Universidade Regional do Cariri, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Diversidade Biológica e Recursos Naturais, Campus do Pimenta, Rua Cel. Antônio Luiz, 1161, Crato CEP 63105-100, Brazil
4
Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Laboratório de Evolução e Genética Animal, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, ICB II, Setor Sul, Av. Rodrigo Octávio Jordão Ramos, 6200, Manaus CEP 69080-900, Brazil
5
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Centro de Estudos de Quelônios da Amazônia, Av. André Araújo 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus CEP 69067-375, Brazil
6
Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Jena, 07747 Jena, Germany
7
Institute for Applied Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 12 2616, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(9), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092088
Received: 18 August 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 11 September 2020 / Published: 12 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Non-human Chromosome Analysis)
The Amazonian red side-necked turtle Rhynemis rufipes is an endemic Amazonian Chelidae species that occurs in small streams throughout Colombia and Brazil river basins. Little is known about various biological aspects of this species, including its sex determination strategies. Among chelids, the greatest karyotype diversity is found in the Neotropical species, with several 2n configurations, including cases of triploidy. Here, we investigate the karyotype of Rhinemys rufipes by applying combined conventional and molecular cytogenetic procedures. This allowed us to discover a genetic sex-determining mechanism that shares an ancestral micro XY sex chromosome system. This ancient micro XY system recruited distinct repeat motifs before it diverged from several South America and Australasian species. We propose that such a system dates back to the earliest lineages of the chelid species before the split of South America and Australasian lineages. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic sex determination; comparative genome hybridization; Chelidae; Neotropical region; karyotype genetic sex determination; comparative genome hybridization; Chelidae; Neotropical region; karyotype
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MDPI and ACS Style

Viana, P.F.; Feldberg, E.; Cioffi, M.B.; de Carvalho, V.T.; Menezes, S.; Vogt, R.C.; Liehr, T.; Ezaz, T. The Amazonian Red Side-Necked Turtle Rhinemys rufipes (Spix, 1824) (Testudines, Chelidae) Has a GSD Sex-Determining Mechanism with an Ancient XY Sex Microchromosome System. Cells 2020, 9, 2088. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092088

AMA Style

Viana PF, Feldberg E, Cioffi MB, de Carvalho VT, Menezes S, Vogt RC, Liehr T, Ezaz T. The Amazonian Red Side-Necked Turtle Rhinemys rufipes (Spix, 1824) (Testudines, Chelidae) Has a GSD Sex-Determining Mechanism with an Ancient XY Sex Microchromosome System. Cells. 2020; 9(9):2088. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092088

Chicago/Turabian Style

Viana, Patrik F., Eliana Feldberg, Marcelo B. Cioffi, Vinicius Tadeu de Carvalho, Sabrina Menezes, Richard C. Vogt, Thomas Liehr, and Tariq Ezaz. 2020. "The Amazonian Red Side-Necked Turtle Rhinemys rufipes (Spix, 1824) (Testudines, Chelidae) Has a GSD Sex-Determining Mechanism with an Ancient XY Sex Microchromosome System" Cells 9, no. 9: 2088. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092088

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