Next Article in Journal
Importance of Endocytosis for the Biological Activity of Cedar Virus Fusion Protein
Next Article in Special Issue
Incorporating Prognostic Biomarkers into Risk Assessment Models and TNM Staging for Prostate Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Cytokines Explored in Saliva and Tears from Radiated Cancer Patients Correlate with Clinical Manifestations, Influencing Important Immunoregulatory Cellular Pathways
Previous Article in Special Issue
New Frontiers in Prostate Cancer Treatment: Are We Ready for Drug Combinations with Novel Agents?
Review

Is There a Role for Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer?

1
Oncologia Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, via Albertoni, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
Section of Pathological Anatomy, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, United Hospitals, 60126 Ancona, Italy
3
Oncology Unit, Macerata Hospital, 62012 Macerata, Italy
4
Department of Pathology, Ospedale Maggiore and University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
5
Laboratory Medicine and Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
6
Department of Surgery, Cordoba University Medical School, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.
These authors contributed equally to this work as last authors.
Cells 2020, 9(9), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092051
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 4 September 2020 / Accepted: 6 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
In the last decade, immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape of several hematological and solid malignancies, reporting unprecedented response rates. Unfortunately, this is not the case for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), as several phase I and II trials assessing programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors have shown limited benefits. Moreover, despite sipuleucel-T representing the only cancer vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for mCRPC following the results of the IMPACT trial, the use of this agent is relatively limited in everyday clinical practice. The identification of specific histological and molecular biomarkers that could predict response to immunotherapy represents one of the current challenges, with an aim to detect subgroups of mCRPC patients who may benefit from immune checkpoint monoclonal antibodies as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents. Several unanswered questions remain, including the following: is there—or will there ever be—a role for immunotherapy in prostate cancer? In this review, we aim at underlining the failures and promises of immunotherapy in prostate cancer, summarizing the current state of art regarding cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint monoclonal antibodies, and discussing future research directions in this immunologically “cold” malignancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; immunotherapy; pd-1; CTLA-4; predictive biomarkers; vaccines; immune checkpoint inhibitors; combination therapy prostate cancer; immunotherapy; pd-1; CTLA-4; predictive biomarkers; vaccines; immune checkpoint inhibitors; combination therapy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rizzo, A.; Mollica, V.; Cimadamore, A.; Santoni, M.; Scarpelli, M.; Giunchi, F.; Cheng, L.; Lopez-Beltran, A.; Fiorentino, M.; Montironi, R.; Massari, F. Is There a Role for Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer? Cells 2020, 9, 2051. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092051

AMA Style

Rizzo A, Mollica V, Cimadamore A, Santoni M, Scarpelli M, Giunchi F, Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A, Fiorentino M, Montironi R, Massari F. Is There a Role for Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer? Cells. 2020; 9(9):2051. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rizzo, Alessandro, Veronica Mollica, Alessia Cimadamore, Matteo Santoni, Marina Scarpelli, Francesca Giunchi, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Rodolfo Montironi, and Francesco Massari. 2020. "Is There a Role for Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer?" Cells 9, no. 9: 2051. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092051

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop