Next Article in Journal
Seeking and Exploring Efficient Ways to Target Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Clinical Actionability of the Genomic Landscape of Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Role of GPER-Mediated Signaling in Testicular Functions and Tumorigenesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Is There a Role for Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer?
Review

Incorporating Prognostic Biomarkers into Risk Assessment Models and TNM Staging for Prostate Cancer

1
Department of Surgery (Section of Urology), University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
2
Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut 11-0236, Lebanon
3
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, 60126 Ancona, Italy
4
Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(9), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092116
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 6 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 17 September 2020
In current practice, prostate cancer staging alone is not sufficient to adequately assess the patient’s prognosis and plan the management strategies. Multiple clinicopathological parameters and risk tools for prostate cancer have been developed over the past decades to better characterize the disease and provide an enhanced assessment of prognosis. Herein, we review novel prognostic biomarkers and their integration into risk assessment models for prostate cancer focusing on their capability to help avoid unnecessary imaging studies, biopsies and diagnosis of low risk prostate cancers, to help in the decision-making process between active surveillance and treatment intervention, and to predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy. There is an imperative need of reliable biomarkers to stratify prostate cancer patients that may benefit from different management approaches. The integration of biomarkers panel with risk assessment models appears to improve prostate cancer diagnosis and management. However, integration of novel genomic biomarkers in future prognostic models requires further validation in their clinical efficacy, standardization, and cost-effectiveness in routine application. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; biomarkers; staging; risk assessment models; predictive scores; prognosis; molecular classifier prostate cancer; biomarkers; staging; risk assessment models; predictive scores; prognosis; molecular classifier
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Saoud, R.; Heidar, N.A.; Cimadamore, A.; Paner, G.P. Incorporating Prognostic Biomarkers into Risk Assessment Models and TNM Staging for Prostate Cancer. Cells 2020, 9, 2116. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092116

AMA Style

Saoud R, Heidar NA, Cimadamore A, Paner GP. Incorporating Prognostic Biomarkers into Risk Assessment Models and TNM Staging for Prostate Cancer. Cells. 2020; 9(9):2116. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saoud, Ragheed, Nassib A. Heidar, Alessia Cimadamore, and Gladell P. Paner 2020. "Incorporating Prognostic Biomarkers into Risk Assessment Models and TNM Staging for Prostate Cancer" Cells 9, no. 9: 2116. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9092116

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop