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Why Should Growth Hormone (GH) Be Considered a Promising Therapeutic Agent for Arteriogenesis? Insights from the GHAS Trial

1
Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Research and Development, The Medical Center Foltra, 15886 Teo, Spain
3
. Neoplasia and Endocrine Differentiation Research Group. Center for Research in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases (CIMUS). University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782. Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Scientific Direction, The Medical Center Foltra, 15886 Teo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(4), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040807
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arteriogenesis and Therapeutic Neovascularization)
Despite the important role that the growth hormone (GH)/IGF-I axis plays in vascular homeostasis, these kind of growth factors barely appear in articles addressing the neovascularization process. Currently, the vascular endothelium is considered as an authentic gland of internal secretion due to the wide variety of released factors and functions with local effects, including the paracrine/autocrine production of GH or IGF-I, for which the endothelium has specific receptors. In this comprehensive review, the evidence involving these proangiogenic hormones in arteriogenesis dealing with the arterial occlusion and making of them a potential therapy is described. All the elements that trigger the local and systemic production of GH/IGF-I, as well as their possible roles both in physiological and pathological conditions are analyzed. All of the evidence is combined with important data from the GHAS trial, in which GH or a placebo were administrated to patients suffering from critical limb ischemia with no option for revascularization. We postulate that GH, alone or in combination, should be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for helping in the approach of ischemic disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: GH and eNOS; IGF-I; oxidative stress and arterial inflammation; vascular homeostasis; neovascularization; arteriogenesis; GHAS trial GH and eNOS; IGF-I; oxidative stress and arterial inflammation; vascular homeostasis; neovascularization; arteriogenesis; GHAS trial
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Caicedo, D.; Devesa, P.; Alvarez, C.V.; Devesa, J. Why Should Growth Hormone (GH) Be Considered a Promising Therapeutic Agent for Arteriogenesis? Insights from the GHAS Trial. Cells 2020, 9, 807.

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