Next Article in Journal
Recent Advances in the Development of Protein- and Peptide-Based Subunit Vaccines against Tuberculosis
Next Article in Special Issue
Endothelial Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Signalling Is Required for Lymphocyte Transmigration across Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Previous Article in Journal
The Microtubule Cytoskeleton during the Early Drosophila Spermiogenesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Capillary Rarefaction in Obesity and Metabolic Diseases—Organ-Specificity and Possible Mechanisms
Review

The Role of BAR Proteins and the Glycocalyx in Brain Endothelium Transcytosis

by 1,2, 1,2,3,4 and 1,2,4,5,6,*
1
Department of Chemistry, University College London, London WC1H 0AJ, UK
2
Institute of the Physics and Living Systems, University College London, London WC1H 0AJ, UK
3
Samantha Dickson Brain Cancer Unit, Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 06DD, UK
4
Cancer Research UK, City of London Centre, London WC1E 06DD, UK
5
Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute for Science and Technology (BIST), 08028 Barcelona, Spain
6
Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(12), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122685
Received: 1 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Signalling)
Within the brain, endothelial cells lining the blood vessels meticulously coordinate the transport of nutrients, energy metabolites and other macromolecules essential in maintaining an appropriate activity of the brain. While small molecules are pumped across specialised molecular transporters, large macromolecular cargos are shuttled from one side to the other through membrane-bound carriers formed by endocytosis on one side, trafficked to the other side and released by exocytosis. Such a process is collectively known as transcytosis. The brain endothelium is recognised to possess an intricate vesicular endosomal network that mediates the transcellular transport of cargos from blood-to-brain and brain-to-blood. However, mounting evidence suggests that brain endothelial cells (BECs) employ a more direct route via tubular carriers for a fast and efficient transport from the blood to the brain. Here, we compile the mechanism of transcytosis in BECs, in which we highlight intracellular trafficking mediated by tubulation, and emphasise the possible role in transcytosis of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) proteins and glycocalyx (GC)—a layer of sugars covering BECs, in transcytosis. Both BAR proteins and the GC are intrinsically associated with cell membranes and involved in the modulation and shaping of these membranes. Hence, we aim to summarise the machinery involved in transcytosis in BECs and highlight an uncovered role of BAR proteins and the GC at the brain endothelium. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood–brain barrier; endothelium; transcytosis; tubulation; BAR proteins; glycocalyx blood–brain barrier; endothelium; transcytosis; tubulation; BAR proteins; glycocalyx
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Leite, D.M.; Matias, D.; Battaglia, G. The Role of BAR Proteins and the Glycocalyx in Brain Endothelium Transcytosis. Cells 2020, 9, 2685. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122685

AMA Style

Leite DM, Matias D, Battaglia G. The Role of BAR Proteins and the Glycocalyx in Brain Endothelium Transcytosis. Cells. 2020; 9(12):2685. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122685

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leite, Diana M., Diana Matias, and Giuseppe Battaglia. 2020. "The Role of BAR Proteins and the Glycocalyx in Brain Endothelium Transcytosis" Cells 9, no. 12: 2685. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122685

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop