The mammalian Ccr4–Not complex, carbon catabolite repression 4 (Ccr4)-negative on TATA-less (Not), is a large, highly conserved, multifunctional assembly of proteins that acts at different cellular levels to regulate gene expression. In the nucleus, it is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, chromatin modification, activation and inhibition of transcription initiation, control of transcription elongation, RNA export, nuclear RNA surveillance, and DNA damage repair. In the cytoplasm, the Ccr4–Not complex plays a central role in mRNA decay and affects protein quality control. Most of our original knowledge of the Ccr4–Not complex is derived, primarily, from studies in yeast. More recent studies have shown that the mammalian complex has a comparable structure and similar properties. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the multiple roles of both the yeast and mammalian Ccr4–Not complexes, highlighting their similarities.
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