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The Therapeutic Implications of Tea Polyphenols against Dopamine (DA) Neuron Degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
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Cellular and Synaptic Dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease: Stepping Out of the Striatum

1
Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
2
CNRS UMR 5293, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
3
Department of Pharmacology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Spain
4
Laboratory of Neurophysiology, ULB Neuroscience Institute, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(9), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091005
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 28 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 29 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease 2019)
The basal ganglia (BG) are a collection of interconnected subcortical nuclei that participate in a great variety of functions, ranging from motor programming and execution to procedural learning, cognition, and emotions. This network is also the region primarily affected by the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons localized in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). This degeneration causes cellular and synaptic dysfunctions in the BG network, which are responsible for the appearance of the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine (DA) modulation and the consequences of its loss on the striatal microcircuit have been extensively studied, and because of the discrete nature of DA innervation of other BG nuclei, its action outside the striatum has been considered negligible. However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting functional extrastriatal DA modulation of both cellular excitability and synaptic transmission. In this review, the functional relevance of DA modulation outside the striatum in both normal and pathological conditions will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Globus pallidus; subthalamic nucleus; substantia nigra; dopamine; pacemaking; neuronal excitability; GABAergic transmission; neuronal oscillations Globus pallidus; subthalamic nucleus; substantia nigra; dopamine; pacemaking; neuronal excitability; GABAergic transmission; neuronal oscillations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallet, N.; Delgado, L.; Chazalon, M.; Miguelez, C.; Baufreton, J. Cellular and Synaptic Dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease: Stepping Out of the Striatum. Cells 2019, 8, 1005.

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