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Review

Membrane-Bound Meet Membraneless in Health and Disease

1
Hubrecht Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Biomedical Science of Cells and Systems, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(9), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091000
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 29 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Traffic in Health and Disease)
Membraneless organelles (MLOs) are defined as cellular structures that are not sealed by a lipidic membrane and are shown to form by phase separation. They exist in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm that is also heavily populated by numerous membrane-bound organelles. Even though the name membraneless suggests that MLOs are free of membrane, both membrane and factors regulating membrane trafficking steps are emerging as important components of MLO formation and function. As a result, we name them biocondensates. In this review, we examine the relationships between biocondensates and membrane. First, inhibition of membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway leads to the formation of biocondensates (P-bodies and Sec bodies). In the same vein, stress granules have a complex relationship with the cyto-nuclear transport machinery. Second, membrane contributes to the regulated formation of phase separation in the cells and we will present examples including clustering at the plasma membrane and at the synapse. Finally, the whole cell appears to transit from an interphase phase-separated state to a mitotic diffuse state in a DYRK3 dependent manner. This firmly establishes a crosstalk between the two types of cell organization that will need to be further explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane; organelles; phase separation membrane; organelles; phase separation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, C.; Rabouille, C. Membrane-Bound Meet Membraneless in Health and Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091000

AMA Style

Zhang C, Rabouille C. Membrane-Bound Meet Membraneless in Health and Disease. Cells. 2019; 8(9):1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Chujun, and Catherine Rabouille. 2019. "Membrane-Bound Meet Membraneless in Health and Disease" Cells 8, no. 9: 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091000

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