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A Comprehensive Review of Autophagy and Its Various Roles in Infectious, Non-Infectious, and Lifestyle Diseases: Current Knowledge and Prospects for Disease Prevention, Novel Drug Design, and Therapy

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Department of Genetics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462 026, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj 31975/148, Iran
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Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Central University Laboratory, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600051, India
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Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 281 001, India
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Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 190025, Jammu and Kashmir, India
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Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N. L., CP 64849, Mexico
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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
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Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(7), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070674
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Autophagy)
Autophagy (self-eating) is a conserved cellular degradation process that plays important roles in maintaining homeostasis and preventing nutritional, metabolic, and infection-mediated stresses. Autophagy dysfunction can have various pathological consequences, including tumor progression, pathogen hyper-virulence, and neurodegeneration. This review describes the mechanisms of autophagy and its associations with other cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autosis. Autophagy has both positive and negative roles in infection, cancer, neural development, metabolism, cardiovascular health, immunity, and iron homeostasis. Genetic defects in autophagy can have pathological consequences, such as static childhood encephalopathy with neurodegeneration in adulthood, Crohn’s disease, hereditary spastic paraparesis, Danon disease, X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Further studies on the process of autophagy in different microbial infections could help to design and develop novel therapeutic strategies against important pathogenic microbes. This review on the progress and prospects of autophagy research describes various activators and suppressors, which could be used to design novel intervention strategies against numerous diseases and develop therapeutic drugs to protect human and animal health. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy mechanism; autophagy-associated diseases; macroautophagy; chaperone-mediated autophagy; apoptosis; necroptosis; necrosis; iron homeostasis; autophagy inhibition; AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; autosis autophagy mechanism; autophagy-associated diseases; macroautophagy; chaperone-mediated autophagy; apoptosis; necroptosis; necrosis; iron homeostasis; autophagy inhibition; AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; autosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khandia, R.; Dadar, M.; Munjal, A.; Dhama, K.; Karthik, K.; Tiwari, R.; Yatoo, M.I.; Iqbal, H.M.; Singh, K.P.; Joshi, S.K.; Chaicumpa, W. A Comprehensive Review of Autophagy and Its Various Roles in Infectious, Non-Infectious, and Lifestyle Diseases: Current Knowledge and Prospects for Disease Prevention, Novel Drug Design, and Therapy. Cells 2019, 8, 674.

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