Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Pyrazole Ethandiamide Compounds as Inhibitors of Human THP-1 Monocytic Cell Neurotoxicity
Previous Article in Journal
The Aberrant Expression of the Mesenchymal Variant of FGFR2 in the Epithelial Context Inhibits Autophagy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cellular Proteostasis During Influenza A Virus Infection—Friend or Foe?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Viroporins in the Influenza Virus

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(7), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070654
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Pathogen Interactions During Influenza Virus Infection)
  |  
PDF [762 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Influenza is a highly contagious virus that causes seasonal epidemics and unpredictable pandemics. Four influenza virus types have been identified to date: A, B, C and D, with only A–C known to infect humans. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for seasonal influenza epidemics in humans and are responsible for up to a billion flu infections annually. The M2 protein is present in all influenza types and belongs to the class of viroporins, i.e., small proteins that form ion channels that increase membrane permeability in virus-infected cells. In influenza A and B, AM2 and BM2 are predominantly proton channels, although they also show some permeability to monovalent cations. By contrast, M2 proteins in influenza C and D, CM2 and DM2, appear to be especially selective for chloride ions, with possibly some permeability to protons. These differences point to different biological roles for M2 in types A and B versus C and D, which is also reflected in their sequences. AM2 is by far the best characterized viroporin, where mechanistic details and rationale of its acid activation, proton selectivity, unidirectionality, and relative low conductance are beginning to be understood. The present review summarizes the biochemical and structural aspects of influenza viroporins and discusses the most relevant aspects of function, inhibition, and interaction with the host. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza virus; matrix protein 2 (M2); viroporins; ion channel inhibition; protein–protein interactions influenza virus; matrix protein 2 (M2); viroporins; ion channel inhibition; protein–protein interactions
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

To, J.; Torres, J. Viroporins in the Influenza Virus. Cells 2019, 8, 654.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top