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The Effects of Apigenin-Biosynthesized Ultra-Small Platinum Nanoparticles on the Human Monocytic THP-1 Cell Line

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul -05029, Korea
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Cells 2019, 8(5), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050444
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract

Generally, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) are considered non-toxic; however, toxicity depends on the size, dose, and physico-chemical properties of materials. Owing to unique physico-chemical properties, PtNPs have emerged as a material of interest for several biomedical applications, particularly therapeutics. The adverse effect of PtNPs on the human monocytic cell line (THP-1) is not well-established and remains elusive. Exposure to PtNPs may trigger oxidative stress and eventually lead to inflammation. To further understand the toxicological properties of PtNPs, we studied the effect of biologically synthesized ultra-small PtNPs on cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and proinflammatory responses in the human monocytic cell line (THP-1). Our observations clearly indicated that PtNPs induce cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner by reducing cell viability and proliferation. The cytotoxicity of THP-1 cells correlated with an increase in the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, generation of reactive oxygen species, and production of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and carbonylated proteins. The involvement of mitochondria in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was confirmed by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, lower ATP level, and upregulation of proapoptotic and downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. Decreases in the levels of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSH: GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thioredoxin (TRX) were indicative of oxidative stress. Apoptosis was confirmed with the significant upregulation of key apoptosis-regulating genes. Oxidative DNA damage was confirmed by the increase in the levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoG and upregulation of DNA damage and repair genes. Finally, the proinflammatory responses to PtNPs was determined by assessing the levels of multiple cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). All the cytokines were significantly upregulated in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these observations suggest that THP-1 cells were vulnerable to biologically synthesized ultra-small PtNPs.
Keywords: platinum nanoparticles; oxidative stress; genotoxicity; proinflammatory response; cytokines; apoptosis; DNA damage platinum nanoparticles; oxidative stress; genotoxicity; proinflammatory response; cytokines; apoptosis; DNA damage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gurunathan, S.; Jeyaraj, M.; Kang, M.-H.; Kim, J.-H. The Effects of Apigenin-Biosynthesized Ultra-Small Platinum Nanoparticles on the Human Monocytic THP-1 Cell Line. Cells 2019, 8, 444.

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