The Hippo Pathway in Prostate Cancer
Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh Centre for Inflammation Research, Edinburgh bioQuarter, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
Institute for Regeneration and Repair, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh bioQuarter, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040370
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease and the Hippo Pathway: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms)
Despite recent efforts, prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most common cancers in men. Currently, there is no effective treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is, therefore, an urgent need to identify new therapeutic targets. The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors—the transcriptional co-activators, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog, transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ)—are foremost regulators of stem cells and cancer biology. Defective Hippo pathway signaling and YAP/TAZ hyperactivation are common across various cancers. Here, we draw on insights learned from other types of cancers and review the latest advances linking the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ to PCa onset and progression. We examine the regulatory interaction between Hippo-YAP/TAZ and the androgen receptor (AR), as main regulators of PCa development, and how uncontrolled expression of YAP/TAZ drives castration resistance by inducing cellular stemness. Finally, we survey the potential therapeutic targeting of the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ to overcome PCa.