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The Hippo Pathway in Prostate Cancer

1
Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh Centre for Inflammation Research, Edinburgh bioQuarter, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
2
Institute for Regeneration and Repair, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh bioQuarter, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040370
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease and the Hippo Pathway: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Despite recent efforts, prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most common cancers in men. Currently, there is no effective treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is, therefore, an urgent need to identify new therapeutic targets. The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors—the transcriptional co-activators, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog, transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ)—are foremost regulators of stem cells and cancer biology. Defective Hippo pathway signaling and YAP/TAZ hyperactivation are common across various cancers. Here, we draw on insights learned from other types of cancers and review the latest advances linking the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ to PCa onset and progression. We examine the regulatory interaction between Hippo-YAP/TAZ and the androgen receptor (AR), as main regulators of PCa development, and how uncontrolled expression of YAP/TAZ drives castration resistance by inducing cellular stemness. Finally, we survey the potential therapeutic targeting of the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ to overcome PCa. View Full-Text
Keywords: hippo pathway; YAP/TAZ; prostate cancer; castration resistance; signal cross-talk; feedback loops hippo pathway; YAP/TAZ; prostate cancer; castration resistance; signal cross-talk; feedback loops
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Salem, O.; Hansen, C.G. The Hippo Pathway in Prostate Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 370.

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