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Mycoplasma genitalium Infection and Chronic Inflammation in Human Prostate Cancer: Detection Using Prostatectomy and Needle Biopsy Specimens

1
Department of Urology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan
3
Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan
4
University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Clinical and Translational Research, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030212
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment: Interaction and Metabolism)
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Abstract

The evidence of association between sexually transmitted infection and prostatic inflammation in human prostate cancer (PCa) is limited. Here, we sought to examine the potential association of prostatic infection with the inflammatory environment and prostate carcinogenesis. We screened surgical and biopsy specimens from 45 patients with PCa against a panel of sexually transmitted infection-related organisms using polymerase chain reaction and examined the severity of intraprostatic inflammation by pathologic examination. Among tested organisms, the rate of Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) infection was significantly different between the prostate cancer cohort and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) cohort (P = 0.03). Mg infection in the surgical specimens was associated with younger patients. The rate of extensive disease (pT2c–3b) was higher in Mg-positive patients than in Mg-negative patients (P = 0.027). No significant correlation was observed between Mg infection status and the grade of intraprostatic inflammation. The detection sensitivity of biopsy specimens was 61% for Mg and 60% for human papillomavirus (HPV)18, indicating possible clinical application of this material. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the urogenital microbiome and inflammation would facilitate the development of strategies for PCa prevention. Further studies are required to explore its clinical utility in recommendations of early re-biopsy, close follow-up, and treatment by antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycoplasma genitalium; human papillomavirus; prostate cancer; inflammation; polymerase chain reaction Mycoplasma genitalium; human papillomavirus; prostate cancer; inflammation; polymerase chain reaction
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Miyake, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Hori, S.; Nakano, A.; Nakano, R.; Yano, H.; Ohnishi, S.; Owari, T.; Morizawa, Y.; Itami, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Inoue, T.; Anai, S.; Torimoto, K.; Tanaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Furuya, H.; Rosser, C.J.; Fujimoto, K. Mycoplasma genitalium Infection and Chronic Inflammation in Human Prostate Cancer: Detection Using Prostatectomy and Needle Biopsy Specimens. Cells 2019, 8, 212.

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