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Cells 2019, 8(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020099

Biology, Pathophysiological Role, and Clinical Implications of Exosomes: A Critical Appraisal

1
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri 185236, India
2
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
3
Department of Bioscience, Shri Ram Group of College (SRGC), Muzaffarnagar 251001, India
4
CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exosomes and Extracellular Vesicles in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Exosomes are membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin, which are generated during the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and plasma membranes. Exosomes are released into the extracellular milieu or body fluids; this process was reported for mesenchymal, epithelial, endothelial, and different immune cells (B-cells and dendritic cells), and was reported to be correlated with normal physiological processes. The compositions and abundances of exosomes depend on their tissue origins and cell types. Exosomes range in size between 30 and 100 nm, and shuttle nucleic acids (DNA, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs), proteins, and lipids between donor and target cells. Pathogenic microorganisms also secrete exosomes that modulate the host immune system and influence the fate of infections. Such immune-modulatory effect of exosomes can serve as a diagnostic biomarker of disease. On the other hand, the antigen-presenting and immune-stimulatory properties of exosomes enable them to trigger anti-tumor responses, and exosome release from cancerous cells suggests they contribute to the recruitment and reconstitution of components of tumor microenvironments. Furthermore, their modulation of physiological and pathological processes suggests they contribute to the developmental program, infections, and human diseases. Despite significant advances, our understanding of exosomes is far from complete, particularly regarding our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that subserve exosome formation, cargo packaging, and exosome release in different cellular backgrounds. The present study presents diverse biological aspects of exosomes, and highlights their diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; extracellular transport; diseases; secretory vesicles; stem cells exosomes; extracellular transport; diseases; secretory vesicles; stem cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jan, A.T.; Rahman, S.; Khan, S.; Tasduq, S.A.; Choi, I. Biology, Pathophysiological Role, and Clinical Implications of Exosomes: A Critical Appraisal. Cells 2019, 8, 99.

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