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Cells 2019, 8(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020147

Gli Proteins: Regulation in Development and Cancer

Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2c, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
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Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Hedgehog Signaling in Cancer)
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Abstract

Gli proteins are transcriptional effectors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. They play key roles in the development of many organs and tissues, and are deregulated in birth defects and cancer. We review the molecular mechanisms of Gli protein regulation in mammals, with special emphasis on posttranslational modifications and intracellular transport. We also discuss how Gli proteins interact with co-activators and co-repressors to fine-tune the expression of Hedgehog target genes. Finally, we provide an overview of the regulation of developmental processes and tissue regeneration by Gli proteins and discuss how these proteins are involved in cancer progression, both through canonical regulation via the Hedgehog pathway and through cross-talk with other signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hedgehog signaling; Gli proteins; posttranslational modifications; primary cilia; cancer; developmental signaling; morphogen signaling; nuclear import Hedgehog signaling; Gli proteins; posttranslational modifications; primary cilia; cancer; developmental signaling; morphogen signaling; nuclear import
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Niewiadomski, P.; Niedziółka, S.M.; Markiewicz, Ł.; Uśpieński, T.; Baran, B.; Chojnowska, K. Gli Proteins: Regulation in Development and Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 147.

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