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Mechanisms of Chemotherapy Resistance in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer—How We Can Rise to the Challenge
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MicroRNAs Contribute to Breast Cancer Invasiveness

Cancer Research Institute, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 845 05 Bratislava, Slovakia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1361;
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cancers: Breast Cancer)
Cancer statistics in 2018 highlight an 8.6 million incidence in female cancers, and 4.2 million cancer deaths globally. Moreover, breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in females and twenty percent of these develop metastasis. This provides only a small chance for successful therapy, and identification of new molecular markers for the diagnosis and prognostic prediction of metastatic disease and development of innovative therapeutic molecules are therefore urgently required. Differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancers cause multiple changes in the expression of the tumorigenesis-promoting genes which have mostly been investigated in breast cancers. Herein, we summarize recent data on breast cancer-specific miRNA expression profiles and their participation in regulating invasive processes, in association with changes in cytoskeletal structure, cell-cell adhesion junctions, cancer cell-extracellular matrix interactions, tumor microenvironments, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions and cancer cell stem abilities. We then focused on the epigenetic regulation of individual miRNAs and their modified interactions with other regulatory genes, and reviewed the function of miRNA isoforms and exosome-mediated miRNA transfer in cancer invasiveness. Although research into miRNA’s function in cancer is still ongoing, results herein contribute to improved metastatic cancer management. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA expression; miRNA target genes; epigenetic regulation; female cancer; breast cancer; invasiveness; metastasis miRNA expression; miRNA target genes; epigenetic regulation; female cancer; breast cancer; invasiveness; metastasis
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Fridrichova, I.; Zmetakova, I. MicroRNAs Contribute to Breast Cancer Invasiveness. Cells 2019, 8, 1361.

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