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Transcriptional Regulation of Autophagy Genes via Stage-Specific Activation of CEBPB and PPARG during Adipogenesis: A Systematic Study Using Public Gene Expression and Transcription Factor Binding Datasets

Department of Biochemistry and Convergence Medical Sciences and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 527-27, Korea
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Cells 2019, 8(11), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111321
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids and Lipid Metabolism in Autophagy)
Autophagy is the cell self-eating mechanism to maintain cell homeostasis by removing damaged intracellular proteins or organelles. It has also been implicated in the development and differentiation of various cell types including the adipocyte. Several links between adipogenic transcription factors and key autophagy genes has been suggested. In this study, we tried to model the gene expression and their transcriptional regulation during the adipocyte differentiation using high-throughput sequencing datasets of the 3T3-L1 cell model. We applied the gene expression and co-expression analysis to all and the subset of autophagy genes to study the binding, and occupancy patterns of adipogenic factors, co-factors and histone modifications on key autophagy genes. We also analyzed the gene expression of key autophagy genes under different transcription factor knockdown adipocyte cells. We found that a significant percent of the variance in the autophagy gene expression is explained by the differentiation stage of the cell. Adipogenic master regulators, such as CEBPB and PPARG target key autophagy genes directly. In addition, the same factor may also control autophagy gene expression indirectly through autophagy transcription factors such as FOXO1, TFEB or XBP1. Finally, the binding of adipogenic factors is associated with certain patterns of co-factors binding that might modulate the functions. Some of the findings were further confirmed under the knockdown of the adipogenic factors in the differentiating adipocytes. In conclusion, autophagy genes are regulated as part of the transcriptional programs through adipogenic factors either directly or indirectly through autophagy transcription factors during adipogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; transcription; adipocyte; differentiation; PPARG; CEBPB autophagy; transcription; adipocyte; differentiation; PPARG; CEBPB
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Ahmed, M.; Lai, T.H.; Hwang, J.S.; Zada, S.; Pham, T.M.; Kim, D.R. Transcriptional Regulation of Autophagy Genes via Stage-Specific Activation of CEBPB and PPARG during Adipogenesis: A Systematic Study Using Public Gene Expression and Transcription Factor Binding Datasets. Cells 2019, 8, 1321.

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