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Open AccessArticle

Association of NF-κB and AP-1 with MMP-9 Overexpression in 2-Chloroethanol Exposed Rat Astrocytes

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang 110122, Liaoning, China
2
Department of Physiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, Liaoning, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2018, 7(8), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7080096
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling)
Subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) has become a serious occupational problem in China, and brain edema is its main pathological consequence, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. As the metabolite of 1,2-DCE, 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) is more reactive, and might play an important role in the toxic effects of 1,2-DCE. In our previous studies, we found that matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) expression was enhanced in mouse brains upon treatment with 1,2-DCE, and in rat astrocytes exposed to 2-CE. In the present study, we analyzed the association of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) with MMP-9 overexpression in astrocytes treated with 2-CE. MMP-9, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos were significantly upregulated by 2-CE treatment, which also enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun, c-Fos and inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), and nuclear translocation of p65. Furthermore, inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and AP-1 activity with the specific inhibitors could attenuate MMP-9 overexpression in the cells. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway suppressed the activation of both NF-κB and AP-1 in 2-CE-treated astrocytes. In conclusion, MMP-9 overexpression induced by 2-CE in astrocytes could be mediated at least in part through the p38 signaling pathway via activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. This study might provide novel clues for clarifying the mechanisms underlying 1,2-DCE associated cerebral edema. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1,2-Dichloroethane poisoning; 2-Chloroethanol; matrix metalloproteinases-9; p38 MAPK signal pathway; nuclear factor-κB; activator protein-1 1,2-Dichloroethane poisoning; 2-Chloroethanol; matrix metalloproteinases-9; p38 MAPK signal pathway; nuclear factor-κB; activator protein-1
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Wang, T.; Jin, X.; Liao, Y.; Sun, Q.; Luo, C.; Wang, G.; Zhao, F.; Jin, Y. Association of NF-κB and AP-1 with MMP-9 Overexpression in 2-Chloroethanol Exposed Rat Astrocytes. Cells 2018, 7, 96.

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