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Cells 2018, 7(11), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7110222

Lack of LTβR Increases Susceptibility of IPEC-J2 Cells to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus

1
Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
Department of Animal Science, Chinese Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract

The essential requirement of the lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) in the development and maintenance of peripheral lymphoid organs is well recognized. Evidence shows that LTβR is involved in various cellular processes; however, whether it plays a role in maintaining the cellular function of intestinal porcine enterocytes (IPEC-J2), specifically during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, remains unknown. In this study, we generated LTβR null IPEC-J2 cells using CRISPR/Cas9 to examine the importance of LTβR in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the response to PEDV infection. Our results showed that the lack of LTβR leads to significantly decreased cell proliferation, potentially due to S phase arrest in LTβR−/− IPEC-J2 cells. Label-free digital holographic microscopy was used to record the three-dimensional morphology of both cell types for up to 72 hours and revealed significantly increased numbers of LTβR−/− cells undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that PEDV-infected LTβR−/− null IPEC-J2 cells exhibited significant suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) target genes (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8) and mucosal barrier integrity-related genes (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) and IL-22), which may explain why LTβR−/− cells are more susceptible to PEDV infection. Collectively, our data not only demonstrate the key role of LTβR in intestinal porcine enterocytes, but also provide data for the improved understanding of the cellular response to PEDV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR); intestinal porcine enterocyte cells; CRISPR/Cas9; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR); intestinal porcine enterocyte cells; CRISPR/Cas9; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection
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Altawaty, T.; Liu, L.; Zhang, H.; Tao, C.; Hou, S.; Li, K.; Wang, Y. Lack of LTβR Increases Susceptibility of IPEC-J2 Cells to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus. Cells 2018, 7, 222.

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