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Article

Illuminating Host-Parasite Interaction at the Cellular and Subcellular Levels with Infrared Microspectroscopy

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School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B43, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
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School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
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Department of Biomedical Science, Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang 13200, Malaysia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
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Department of Biosciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
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Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tomasz P. Wrobel, Lisa Vaccari and Hugh J. Byrne
Cells 2022, 11(5), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050811
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 16 February 2022 / Accepted: 22 February 2022 / Published: 25 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Subcellular Analysis Using Vibrational Spectroscopy)
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an opportunistic protozoan that can cause brain infection and other serious health consequences in immuno-compromised individuals. This parasite has a remarkable ability to cross biological barriers and exploit the host cell microenvironment to support its own survival and growth. Recent advances in label-free spectroscopic imaging techniques have made it possible to study biological systems at a high spatial resolution. In this study, we used conventional Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy to analyze the chemical changes that are associated with infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) by T. gondii (RH) tachyzoites. Both FTIR microspectroscopic methods showed utility in revealing the chemical alterations in the infected hBMECs. Using a ZnS hemisphere device, to increase the numerical aperture, and the synchrotron source to increase the brightness, we obtained spatially resolved spectra from within a single cell. The spectra extracted from the nucleus and cytosol containing the tachyzoites were clearly distinguished. RNA sequencing analysis of T. gondii-infected and uninfected hBMECs revealed significant changes in the expression of host cell genes and pathways in response to T. gondii infection. These FTIR spectroscopic and transcriptomic findings provide significant insight into the molecular changes that occur in hBMECs during T. gondii infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; host-pathogen interaction; blood-brain barrier; vibrational spectroscopy; synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy Toxoplasma gondii; host-pathogen interaction; blood-brain barrier; vibrational spectroscopy; synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elsheikha, H.M.; Al-Sandaqchi, A.T.; Harun, M.S.R.; Winterton, F.; Altharawi, A.; Elsaied, N.A.; Stevenson, C.W.; MacNaughtan, W.; Mina, J.G.M.; Denny, P.W.; Cinque, G.; Chan, K.L.A. Illuminating Host-Parasite Interaction at the Cellular and Subcellular Levels with Infrared Microspectroscopy. Cells 2022, 11, 811. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050811

AMA Style

Elsheikha HM, Al-Sandaqchi AT, Harun MSR, Winterton F, Altharawi A, Elsaied NA, Stevenson CW, MacNaughtan W, Mina JGM, Denny PW, Cinque G, Chan KLA. Illuminating Host-Parasite Interaction at the Cellular and Subcellular Levels with Infrared Microspectroscopy. Cells. 2022; 11(5):811. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050811

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elsheikha, Hany M., Alaa T. Al-Sandaqchi, Mohammad S. R. Harun, Francesca Winterton, Ali Altharawi, Nashwa A. Elsaied, Carl W. Stevenson, William MacNaughtan, John G. M. Mina, Paul W. Denny, Gianfelice Cinque, and Ka Lung Andrew Chan. 2022. "Illuminating Host-Parasite Interaction at the Cellular and Subcellular Levels with Infrared Microspectroscopy" Cells 11, no. 5: 811. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050811

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