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Fibrosis Is a Basement Membrane-Related Disease in the Cornea: Injury and Defective Regeneration of Basement Membranes May Underlie Fibrosis in Other Organs

Cole Eye Institute, I-32, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Academic Editor: Nina Zidar
Cells 2022, 11(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020309
Received: 22 December 2021 / Revised: 7 January 2022 / Accepted: 12 January 2022 / Published: 17 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Fibrosis)
Every organ develops fibrosis that compromises functions in response to infections, injuries, or diseases. The cornea is a relatively simple, avascular organ that offers an exceptional model to better understand the pathophysiology of the fibrosis response. Injury and defective regeneration of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) or the endothelial Descemet’s basement membrane (DBM) triggers the development of myofibroblasts from resident corneal fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived blood borne fibrocytes due to the increased entry of TGF beta-1/-2 into the stroma from the epithelium and tears or residual corneal endothelium and aqueous humor. The myofibroblasts, and disordered extracellular matrix these cells produce, persist until the source of injury is removed, the EBM and/or DBM are regenerated, or replaced surgically, resulting in decreased stromal TGF beta requisite for myofibroblast survival. A similar BM injury-related pathophysiology can underly the development of fibrosis in other organs such as skin and lung. The normal liver does not contain traditional BMs but develops sinusoidal endothelial BMs in many fibrotic diseases and models. However, normal hepatic stellate cells produce collagen type IV and perlecan that can modulate TGF beta localization and cognate receptor binding in the space of Dissé. BM-related fibrosis is deserving of more investigation in all organs. View Full-Text
Keywords: fibrosis; basement membranes; myofibroblasts; fibrocytes; corneal fibroblasts; TGF beta; collagen type IV; cornea; skin; lung; liver fibrosis; basement membranes; myofibroblasts; fibrocytes; corneal fibroblasts; TGF beta; collagen type IV; cornea; skin; lung; liver
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, S.E. Fibrosis Is a Basement Membrane-Related Disease in the Cornea: Injury and Defective Regeneration of Basement Membranes May Underlie Fibrosis in Other Organs. Cells 2022, 11, 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020309

AMA Style

Wilson SE. Fibrosis Is a Basement Membrane-Related Disease in the Cornea: Injury and Defective Regeneration of Basement Membranes May Underlie Fibrosis in Other Organs. Cells. 2022; 11(2):309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilson, Steven E. 2022. "Fibrosis Is a Basement Membrane-Related Disease in the Cornea: Injury and Defective Regeneration of Basement Membranes May Underlie Fibrosis in Other Organs" Cells 11, no. 2: 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11020309

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