Aging contributes to the risk of development of ocular diseases including, but not limited to, Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) that is a leading cause of blindness in the United States as well as worldwide. Retinal aging, that contributes to AMD pathogenesis, is characterized by accumulation of drusen deposits, alteration in the composition of Bruch’s membrane and extracellular matrix, vascular inflammation and dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and subsequent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell senescence. Since there are limited options available for the prophylaxis and treatment of AMD, new therapeutic interventions are constantly being looked into to identify new therapeutic targets for AMD. This review article discusses the potential candidates for AMD therapy and their known mechanisms of cytoprotection in AMD. These target therapeutic candidates include APE/REF-1, MRZ-99030, Ciliary NeuroTrophic Factor (CNTF), RAP1 GTPase, Celecoxib, and SS-31/Elamipretide.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited