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Review

The Multifaceted Regulation of SnRK2 Kinases

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
2
Chair of Drug and Cosmetics Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Academic Editors: Ive De Smet and Suleyman Allakhverdiev
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092180
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 24 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Phosphorylation and Cell Signaling in Plants)
SNF1-related kinases 2 (SnRK2s) are central regulators of plant responses to environmental cues simultaneously playing a pivotal role in the plant development and growth in favorable conditions. They are activated in response to osmotic stress and some of them also to abscisic acid (ABA), the latter being key in ABA signaling. The SnRK2s can be viewed as molecular switches between growth and stress response; therefore, their activity is tightly regulated; needed only for a short time to trigger the response, it has to be induced transiently and otherwise kept at a very low level. This implies a strict and multifaceted control of SnRK2s in plant cells. Despite emerging new information concerning the regulation of SnRK2s, especially those involved in ABA signaling, a lot remains to be uncovered, the regulation of SnRK2s in an ABA-independent manner being particularly understudied. Here, we present an overview of available data, discuss some controversial issues, and provide our perspective on SnRK2 regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: SnRK2; protein phosphorylation; protein de-phosphorylation; osmotic stress; salinity; plant; cell signaling; signal transduction; ABA signaling SnRK2; protein phosphorylation; protein de-phosphorylation; osmotic stress; salinity; plant; cell signaling; signal transduction; ABA signaling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maszkowska, J.; Szymańska, K.P.; Kasztelan, A.; Krzywińska, E.; Sztatelman, O.; Dobrowolska, G. The Multifaceted Regulation of SnRK2 Kinases. Cells 2021, 10, 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092180

AMA Style

Maszkowska J, Szymańska KP, Kasztelan A, Krzywińska E, Sztatelman O, Dobrowolska G. The Multifaceted Regulation of SnRK2 Kinases. Cells. 2021; 10(9):2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maszkowska, Justyna, Katarzyna P. Szymańska, Adrian Kasztelan, Ewa Krzywińska, Olga Sztatelman, and Grażyna Dobrowolska. 2021. "The Multifaceted Regulation of SnRK2 Kinases" Cells 10, no. 9: 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092180

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