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Review

Master Regulators of Muscle Atrophy: Role of Costamere Components

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35121 Padova, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2021, 10(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010061
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 3 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Mechanisms at a Cellular Level)
The loss of muscle mass and force characterizes muscle atrophy in several different conditions, which share the expression of atrogenes and the activation of their transcriptional regulators. However, attempts to antagonize muscle atrophy development in different experimental contexts by targeting contributors to the atrogene pathway showed partial effects in most cases. Other master regulators might independently contribute to muscle atrophy, as suggested by our recent evidence about the co-requirement of the muscle-specific chaperone protein melusin to inhibit unloading muscle atrophy development. Furthermore, melusin and other muscle mass regulators, such as nNOS, belong to costameres, the macromolecular complexes that connect sarcolemma to myofibrils and to the extracellular matrix, in correspondence with specific sarcomeric sites. Costameres sense a mechanical load and transduce it both as lateral force and biochemical signals. Recent evidence further broadens this classic view, by revealing the crucial participation of costameres in a sarcolemmal “signaling hub” integrating mechanical and humoral stimuli, where mechanical signals are coupled with insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor stimulation to regulate muscle mass. Therefore, this review aims to enucleate available evidence concerning the early involvement of costamere components and additional putative master regulators in the development of major types of muscle atrophy. View Full-Text
Keywords: costamere; muscle atrophy; nNOS; melusin; atrogene; dystrophin; muscle disuse; cachexia; sarcopenia; aging costamere; muscle atrophy; nNOS; melusin; atrogene; dystrophin; muscle disuse; cachexia; sarcopenia; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gorza, L.; Sorge, M.; Seclì, L.; Brancaccio, M. Master Regulators of Muscle Atrophy: Role of Costamere Components. Cells 2021, 10, 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010061

AMA Style

Gorza L, Sorge M, Seclì L, Brancaccio M. Master Regulators of Muscle Atrophy: Role of Costamere Components. Cells. 2021; 10(1):61. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010061

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gorza, Luisa, Matteo Sorge, Laura Seclì, and Mara Brancaccio. 2021. "Master Regulators of Muscle Atrophy: Role of Costamere Components" Cells 10, no. 1: 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010061

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