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Open AccessReview

Adenine-Based Purines and Related Metabolizing Enzymes: Evidence for Their Impact on Tumor Extracellular Vesicle Activities

1
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, ‘G. D’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), ‘G. D’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2021, 10(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010188
Received: 14 December 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 14 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purine Signaling and Metabolism in Tumors)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), mainly classified as small and large EVs according to their size/origin, contribute as multi-signal messengers to intercellular communications in normal/pathological conditions. EVs are now recognized as critical players in cancer processes by promoting transformation, growth, invasion, and drug-resistance of tumor cells thanks to the release of molecules contained inside them (i.e., nucleic acids, lipids and proteins) into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Interestingly, secretion from donor cells and/or uptake of EVs/their content by recipient cells are regulated by extracellular signals present in TME. Among those able to modulate the EV-tumor crosstalk, purines, mainly the adenine-based ones, could be included. Indeed, TME is characterized by high levels of ATP/adenosine and by the presence of enzymes deputed to their turnover. Moreover, ATP/adenosine, interacting with their own receptors, can affect both host and tumor responses. However, studies on whether/how the purinergic system behaves as a modulator of EV biogenesis, release and functions in cancer are still poor. Thus, this review is aimed at collecting data so far obtained to stimulate further research in this regard. Hopefully, new findings on the impact of adenine purines/related enzymes on EV functions may be exploited in tumor management uncovering novel tumor biomarkers and/or druggable targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; extracellular vesicles; exosomes/microvesicles; adenine-based compounds; purine metabolizing enzymes; purinergic receptors cancer; extracellular vesicles; exosomes/microvesicles; adenine-based compounds; purine metabolizing enzymes; purinergic receptors
MDPI and ACS Style

Di Iorio, P.; Ciccarelli, R. Adenine-Based Purines and Related Metabolizing Enzymes: Evidence for Their Impact on Tumor Extracellular Vesicle Activities. Cells 2021, 10, 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010188

AMA Style

Di Iorio P, Ciccarelli R. Adenine-Based Purines and Related Metabolizing Enzymes: Evidence for Their Impact on Tumor Extracellular Vesicle Activities. Cells. 2021; 10(1):188. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010188

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Iorio, Patrizia; Ciccarelli, Renata. 2021. "Adenine-Based Purines and Related Metabolizing Enzymes: Evidence for Their Impact on Tumor Extracellular Vesicle Activities" Cells 10, no. 1: 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010188

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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