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Tetraploid Wheats: Valuable Source of Phytosterols and Phytostanols

1
Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle, LCA, Université de Toulouse, INRA, 31030 Toulouse, France
2
IUTA, Département Génie Biologique, Université Paul Sabatier, 32000 Auch, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040201
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract

Phytosterols are known as healthy compounds obtained mainly from oilseed crops. Cereals were also studied for their sterols content. Few insights have been devoted to other tetraploid species than emmer and durum wheats. This work examined phytosterol and phytostanol content in seed of six tetraploid wheat species cultivated during two successive years under rainfed organic conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, France). Sterols (free and esterified sterols) were measured by gas-chromatography-flame ionisation detector. Mean value of sterols + stanols content was 99.5 mg 100 g−1 DW. The main sterol was β-sitosterol. Results showed a year effect on sterol content, whatever the wheat species. This could be explained by the differences in climatic conditions prevailing during plant cycle and grain filling. A large variability for sterols content was found between species and within each species. Emmer wheat revealed the lowest values for all sterols and stanols. Higher values of sterols were obtained in durum wheat. This work is the first report studying T. carthlicum, T. polonicum, T. turgidum, T. timopheevi. These species exhibited intermediate values of sterol contents between emmer and durum wheats. Wheat tetraploid species showed interesting levels of sterols and could serve as a great source of these healthy compounds mainly in Mediterranean region where they are consumed as wholegrain. Variation in climatic conditions could help to manage the level of these secondary metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytosterols-phytostanols; metabolic diversity; climatic conditions; durum wheat; emmer wheat; Triticum carthlicum; T. polonicum; T. timopheevi; T. turgidum; tetraploid wheats phytosterols-phytostanols; metabolic diversity; climatic conditions; durum wheat; emmer wheat; Triticum carthlicum; T. polonicum; T. timopheevi; T. turgidum; tetraploid wheats
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Merah, O.; Mouloungui, Z. Tetraploid Wheats: Valuable Source of Phytosterols and Phytostanols. Agronomy 2019, 9, 201.

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