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Agronomy 2019, 9(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9040183

Modeling Carbon and Water Fluxes of Managed Grasslands: Comparing Flux Variability and Net Carbon Budgets between Grazed and Mowed Systems

1
INRA, Versailles-Grignon, UMR ECOSYS, Bâtiment EGER, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France
2
Rothamsted Research, Department of Plant Sciences, West Common, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK
3
INRA UMR 1069 SAS, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes, France
4
INRA, VetAgro Sup, UMR 874 Ecosystème Prairial, 63100 Clermont Ferrand, France
5
Manaaki Whenua—Landcare Research, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
6
INRA, Centre de recherche Nouvelle-Aquitaine-Poitiers, URP3F, 86600 Lusignan, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grassland Management for Sustainable Agroecosystems)
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Abstract

The CenW ecosystem model simulates carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles following ecophysiological processes and management practices on a daily basis. We tested and evaluated the model using five years eddy covariance measurements from two adjacent but differently managed grasslands in France. The data were used to independently parameterize CenW for the two grassland sites. Very good agreements, i.e., high model efficiencies and correlations, between observed and modeled fluxes were achieved. We showed that the CenW model captured day-to-day, seasonal, and interannual variability observed in measured CO2 and water fluxes. We also showed that following typical management practices (i.e., mowing and grazing), carbon gain was severely curtailed through a sharp and severe reduction in photosynthesizing biomass. We also identified large model/data discrepancies for carbon fluxes during grazing events caused by the noncapture by the eddy covariance system of large respiratory losses of C from dairy cows when they were present in the paddocks. The missing component of grazing animal respiration in the net carbon budget of the grazed grassland can be quantitatively important and can turn sites from being C sinks to being neutral or C sources. It means that extra care is needed in the processing of eddy covariance data from grazed pastures to correctly calculate their annual CO2 balances and carbon budgets. View Full-Text
Keywords: grassland; eddy covariance; carbon cycling; grazing; mowing; CenW model grassland; eddy covariance; carbon cycling; grazing; mowing; CenW model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Puche, N.; Senapati, N.; Flechard, C.R.; Klumpp, K.; Kirschbaum, M.U.; Chabbi, A. Modeling Carbon and Water Fluxes of Managed Grasslands: Comparing Flux Variability and Net Carbon Budgets between Grazed and Mowed Systems. Agronomy 2019, 9, 183.

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