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Agronomy 2019, 9(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9020055

Growth, Seed Yield, Mineral Nutrients and Soil Properties of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as Influenced by Biochar Addition on Upland Field Converted from Paddy

1
United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
2
National Institute of Crop Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan
3
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504, Japan
4
Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, Tottori 680-8553, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract

Sesame is an important oilseed crop cultivated worldwide. However, research has focused on biochar effects on grain crops and vegetable and there is still a scarcity of information of biochar addition on sesame. This study was to assess the effect of biochar addition on sesame performance, with a specific emphasis on growth, yield, leaf nutrient concentration, seed mineral nutrients, and soil physicochemical properties. A field experiment was conducted on an upland field converted from paddy at Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Rice husk biochar was added to sesame cropping at rates of 0 (F), 20 (F+20B), 50 (F+50B) and 100 (F+100B) t ha−1 and combined with NPK fertilization in a first cropping and a second cropping field in 2017. Biochar addition increased plant height, yield and the total number of seeds per plant more in the first cropping than in the second cropping. The F+50B significantly increased seed yield by 35.0% in the first cropping whereas the F+20B non-significantly increased seed yield by 25.1% in the second cropping. At increasing biochar rates, plant K significantly increased while decreasing Mg whereas N and crude protein, P and Ca were non-significantly higher compared to the control. Soil porosity and bulk density improved with biochar addition while pH, exchangeable K, total N, C/N ratio and CEC significantly increased with biochar, but the effect faded in the second cropping. Conversely exchangeable Mg and its plant tissue concentration decreased due to competitive ion effect of high K from the biochar. Biochar addition is effective for increasing nutrient availability especially K for sesame while improving soil physicochemical properties to increase seed yield, growth and seed mineral quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: sesame; rice husk biochar; nutrient concentration; cropping sesame; rice husk biochar; nutrient concentration; cropping
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wacal, C.; Ogata, N.; Basalirwa, D.; Handa, T.; Sasagawa, D.; Acidri, R.; Ishigaki, T.; Kato, M.; Masunaga, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishihara, E. Growth, Seed Yield, Mineral Nutrients and Soil Properties of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as Influenced by Biochar Addition on Upland Field Converted from Paddy. Agronomy 2019, 9, 55.

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