Next Article in Journal
Remote Measurement of Apple Orchard Canopy Information Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Depolymerized Gellan with Different Molecular Weights on the Growth of Four Bedding Plant Species
Previous Article in Journal
Pre-Sowing Irrigation Plus Surface Fertilization Improves Morpho-Physiological Traits and Sustaining Water-Nitrogen Productivity of Cotton
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cultivation Substrate Composition Influences Morphology, Volatilome and Essential Oil of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill.
Article

Bioregulators Can Improve Biomass Production, Photosynthetic Efficiency, and Ornamental Quality of Gazania rigens L.

1
Institute of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
2
Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
3
Institute of Life Science, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, I-56127 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(11), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110773
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 10 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
Gazania rigens L. is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family, widely used as bedding or ornamental potted plants. The environmental and economic sustainability of ornamental production can be enhanced using environmentally friendly bioregulators. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of key bioregulators gibberellic acid ((GA3) at 50, 100 or 150 mg L−1), humic acid ((HA) at 100, 300 or 600 mg L−1), and ascorbic acid ((AA) at 50, 100 or 200 mg L−1)), on the growth, leaf gas exchange, and ornamental quality of G. rigens. The results indicated that plants treated with foliar applications of GA3, HA, or AA exhibited higher plant fresh and dry biomass, plant height, leaf area, and leaf area ratio, root-shoot ratio, root-shoot mass fractions, and number of flowers, as well as the flowers display time. All bioregulator treatments enhanced the vegetative and floral characteristics of Gazania plants. The GA3 was the most efficient at the concentration of 100 mg L−1. The highest efficacy of HA and AA treatments was observed at the higher concentrations, 600 and 200 mg L−1, respectively. These results were associated with higher photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E) as well as stomatal conductance (gs), and water use efficiency (WUE). In conclusion, the results suggest that foliar-applied bioregulators to Gazania are promising and represent sustainable strategies to enhance growth, flowering, and flower display time of Gazania plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: gazania; gas exchange parameters; flowering; ornamental plants; root mass fraction gazania; gas exchange parameters; flowering; ornamental plants; root mass fraction
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zulfiqar, F.; Younis, A.; Abideen, Z.; Francini, A.; Ferrante, A. Bioregulators Can Improve Biomass Production, Photosynthetic Efficiency, and Ornamental Quality of Gazania rigens L. Agronomy 2019, 9, 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110773

AMA Style

Zulfiqar F, Younis A, Abideen Z, Francini A, Ferrante A. Bioregulators Can Improve Biomass Production, Photosynthetic Efficiency, and Ornamental Quality of Gazania rigens L. Agronomy. 2019; 9(11):773. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110773

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zulfiqar, Faisal, Adnan Younis, Zainul Abideen, Alessandra Francini, and Antonio Ferrante. 2019. "Bioregulators Can Improve Biomass Production, Photosynthetic Efficiency, and Ornamental Quality of Gazania rigens L." Agronomy 9, no. 11: 773. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110773

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop