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Open AccessArticle

Changes in the Chemical Composition of Six Lettuce Cultivars (Lactuca sativa L.) in Response to Biofortification with Iodine and Selenium Combined with Salicylic Acid Application

1
Unit of Plant Nutrition, Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
2
Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
3
Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Konya Food and Agriculture University, Beysehir Street, 42080, Konya, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2019, 9(10), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9100660
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofortification of Crops)
A two-year greenhouse study was conducted to assess the effects of the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3), and salicylic acid (SA) in nutrient solutions on the chemical composition of six lettuce cultivars, i.e., two butterhead lettuces (BUTL), “Cud Voorburgu” and “Zimująca”; two iceberg lettuces (ICEL), “Maugli” and “Królowa lata”; and two Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa L. (REDL) cultivars, “Lollorossa” and “Redin”, grown in the NFT (nutrient film technique) system. The treatments were as follows: control, I+Se, I+Se+0.1 mg SA dm−3, I+Se+1.0 mg SA dm−3, and I+Se+10.0 mg SA dm−3. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I dm−3, while Na2SeO3 was used at 0.5 mg Se dm−3. The application of I+Se was a mild abiotic stress factor for the plants of the ICEL and REDL cultivars. In contrast, I+Se did not have a negative impact on the BUTLcultivars. The application of 1.0 mg SA dm−3 improved the biomass productivity in all cultivars compared with I+Se. In the majority of the cultivars, the applied combinations of I+Se and I+Se+SA resulted in a reduction in the nitrate(V) content that was beneficial to the consumer and increased levels of sugars, phenols, phenylpropanoids, flavonols, and anthocyanins. In addition, an increase in ascorbic acid content was observed, but only in the BUTL cultivars and REDL “Redin”. The application of I, Se, and SA had upward or downward effects on the concentrations of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in the leaves. View Full-Text
Keywords: beneficial elements; sugars; phenolic compounds beneficial elements; sugars; phenolic compounds
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Smoleń, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kováčik, P.; Sady, W.; Grzanka, M.; Kutman, U.B. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Six Lettuce Cultivars (Lactuca sativa L.) in Response to Biofortification with Iodine and Selenium Combined with Salicylic Acid Application. Agronomy 2019, 9, 660.

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