Molybdenum (Mo) is required in enzymes involved in a number of different metabolic processes, and is crucial for the survival of plants and animals. The influence of nutrient solutions containing four levels of molybdenum (0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 µmol/L) on growth, yield, and quality of lettuce, escarole, and curly endive grown in a hydroponic floating system was evaluated. Biometric, nutrient, and quality analyses were conducted to assess the response of each species to Mo. The results demonstrated that molybdenum is essential for harvesting marketable plants. Lettuce, escarole, and curly endive plants differed significantly in their response to molybdenum fertilization. The increase of Mo concentration in the nutrient solution was not harmful for plants and had no influence on yield and morphological traits of the leafy vegetables; however, it significantly affected some quality characteristics. Mo fertilization raised the nutritional quality by increasing ascorbic acid content up to 320.2, 139.0, and 102.1 mg kg−1
FW (fresh weight), and reducing nitrate content down to 1039.2, 1047.3, and 1181.2 mg kg−1
FW for lettuce, escarole, and curly endive, respectively. The addition of Mo in the nutrient solution increased the Mo content of plants up to 0.50, 4.02, and 2.68 μg g−1
FW for lettuce, escarole, and curly endive, respectively. Increasing Mo supply to lettuce, escarole, and curly endive up to 3.0 µmol L−1
could lead to a higher nutritional quality with no significant morphological alteration or yield loss.
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