Next Article in Journal
Nitrogen Recovery and Loss from Kentucky Bluegrass Fertilized by Conventional or Enhanced-Efficiency Urea Granules
Next Article in Special Issue
Improving Flooding Tolerance of Crop Plants
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Arabidopsis thaliana Immunity-Related Compounds Modulate Disease Susceptibility in Barley
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Agronomy 2018, 8(8), 143;

Plant Protection by Benzoxazinoids—Recent Insights into Biosynthesis and Function

Chair of Plant Breeding, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1253 KB, uploaded 11 August 2018]   |  


Benzoxazinoids (BXs) are secondary metabolites present in many Poaceae including the major crops maize, wheat, and rye. In contrast to other potentially toxic secondary metabolites, BXs have not been targets of counter selection during breeding and the effect of BXs on insects, microbes, and neighbouring plants has been recognised. A broad knowledge about the mode of action and metabolisation in target organisms including herbivorous insects, aphids, and plants has been gathered in the last decades. BX biosynthesis has been elucidated on a molecular level in crop cereals. Recent advances, mainly made by investigations in maize, uncovered a significant diversity in the composition of BXs within one species. The pattern can be specific for single plant lines and dynamic changes triggered by biotic and abiotic stresses were observed. Single BXs might be toxic, repelling, attractive, and even growth-promoting for insects, depending on the particular species. BXs delivered into the soil influence plant and microbial communities. Furthermore, BXs can possibly be used as signalling molecules within the plant. In this review we intend to give an overview of the current data on the biosynthesis, structure, and function of BXs, beyond their characterisation as mere phytotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzoxazinoids; structural diversity; defence; herbivory; allelopathy; plant-microbe interaction; detoxification benzoxazinoids; structural diversity; defence; herbivory; allelopathy; plant-microbe interaction; detoxification

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Niculaes, C.; Abramov, A.; Hannemann, L.; Frey, M. Plant Protection by Benzoxazinoids—Recent Insights into Biosynthesis and Function. Agronomy 2018, 8, 143.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agronomy EISSN 2073-4395 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top