Achieving high yields is a challenge for sugarcane producers due to the diverse environmental conditions to which the crop is subjected. In tropical and subtropical regions, where sugarcane is typically cultivated, crop diseases are common. This necessitates the development of disease management techniques. Among these techniques, chemical control is of particular significance due to the development of new antifungal agents, such as pyraclostrobin. For some crops, pyraclostrobin has a positive influence on yield due to its effects on plant physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses and yield of three sugarcane cultivars treated with the fungicide, pyraclostrobin. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design (RBD) with a split-plot arrangement; the variables analyzed were the application or non-application of fungicide in the plots and, in the subplots, the evaluation times after fungicide application. Both the rate of photosynthesis and the antioxidant enzyme (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidades) activity increased in plants treated with fungicide in comparison to untreated plants, and in the RB855156 cultivar the stomatal conductance, transpiration, and nocturnal respiratory rate were increased. Furthermore, application of pyraclostrobin increased stalk yield and the green biomass index in the RB855156 and RB86751 sugarcane cultivars. In certain cultivars of sugarcane, application of pyraclostrobin leads to an increased yield.
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