Next Article in Journal
Nanotechnology for Plant Disease Management
Previous Article in Journal
Phosphate Sources and Their Placement Affecting Soil Phosphorus Pools in Sugarcane
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Agronomy 2018, 8(12), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8120284

Impact of Nitrogen and Sulfur Supply on the Potential of Acrylamide Formation in Organically and Conventionally Grown Winter Wheat

1
Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart, Schaflandstraße 3/2, 70736 Fellbach, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1264 KB, uploaded 29 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

In a two-year field trial, the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) fertilization was investigated on grain yield, grain quality parameters, formation of acrylamide (AA), and the precursor free asparagine (Asn) in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat cultivars. In both production systems, different types, amounts, and temporal distributions of N were tested. The the effect of S fertilizer types and amounts on free Asn was only tested in the conventional farming system. Within both cropping systems, grain yield and baking quality were significantly influenced by N treatment while the effect on free Asn was only minor. Especially within the organic farming system, increasing N fertilization levels did not increase free Asn significantly. A slight trend of increasing free Asn levels with an intensified N supply was observed, especially in the presence of crude protein contents of 14% or higher. However, only N amounts of 180 kg N ha−1 or higher increased the probability of high free Asn contents considerably, while N supply below that amount led to free Asn values similar to the unfertilized controls. The results indicated that good baking quality can be achieved without significantly increasing free Asn levels. In addition, cultivars affected the levels of free Asn significantly. Compared to cv. Bussard and Naturastar, cv. Capo exhibited the lowest AA formation potential at an N supply of 180 kg N ha−1 while simultaneously reaching a crude protein content > 15% (conventional) and > 12% (organic). Thus, it seems that cultivars differ in their ability to store and incorporate free Asn into proteins. Over all trials, a relation of free Asn and AA was shown by R2 = 0.77, while a relation of free Asn and protein was only R2 = 0.36. Thus, lowering free Asn by adjusting N treatments should not necessarily affect baking quality. S fertilization within conventional farming did not change the free Asn amount or crude protein significantly, probably due to the fact that soil was not sulfate-deficient. In summary, it was evident that free Asn amounts in wheat varied widely both within cultivars and between cropping systems. In order to clearly unravel genotypic differences and their interaction with environmental factors and especially N fertilization, further research is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: acrylamide; asparagine; agriculture; nitrogen; sulfur; fertilization; cereals; cropping system acrylamide; asparagine; agriculture; nitrogen; sulfur; fertilization; cereals; cropping system
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stockmann, F.; Weber, E.A.; Schreiter, P.; Merkt, N.; Claupein, W.; Graeff-Hönninger, S. Impact of Nitrogen and Sulfur Supply on the Potential of Acrylamide Formation in Organically and Conventionally Grown Winter Wheat. Agronomy 2018, 8, 284.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Agronomy EISSN 2073-4395 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top