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Article

Strip Tillage and Crop Residue Retention Decrease the Size but Increase the Diversity of the Weed Seed Bank under Intensive Rice-Based Crop Rotations in Bangladesh

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Rice Breeding Innovation Platform, International Rice Research Institute, Pili Drive, Los Baños 4031, Philippines
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Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh
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Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Government of Western Australia, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, WA 6151, Australia
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International Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh Office, Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh
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Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
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Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC), Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Kafr Elsheikh 33717, Egypt
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Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kafrelsheikh, Kafr Elsheikh 33516, Egypt
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Centre for Sustainable Farming Systems, Future Food Institute, Murdoch University, South St., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stéphane Cordeau
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061164
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation Agriculture and Agroecological Weed Management)
Cropping under conservation agriculture (CA) has become increasingly attractive among farmers in recent years. However, weed control may be more difficult during the transition to CA from conventional establishment methods due to the reduction in tillage intensity. Conversely, CA changes to weed dynamics can alter the weed seed bank in the longer run. In Bangladesh’s intensively cropped rice-based rotations, the nature of weed seed bank shifts over time after adopting CA are poorly known. Two 2-year studies were sampled from on-farm CA experiments under wheat-mungbean-winter rice and monsoon rice-mustard-winter rice rotations. We investigated the effects of reduced soil disruption in the form of strip-tillage (ST) combined with increased deposition of standing reside from previous crops (0 vs. 50%). The weed seed bank in 0–5, 5–10, and 10–15 cm depths of soil were quantified in a shade-house experiment by measuring weed emergence over 12 months in seedling trays. After 2 years of field study, the year-round count of emerged weeds from the seed bank showed that ST plus 50% mulch had a lower weed abundance and biomass and fewer weed species than that of conventional tillage (CT) without residue. The perennial weeds Ageratum conyzoides L., Alternanthera philoxeroides L., Cynodon dactylon L., Cyperus rotundus L., Jussia decurrence Walt., Leersia hexandra L., Scirpus mucronatus (L.) Palla., and Solanum torvum Sw. were enriched in the smaller-sized ST seed banks in terms of both density and biomass. The CT, on the other hand, was dominated by annual weeds: Cyperus difformis L., Cyanotis axillaris Roem., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv., Eleusine indica L., Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl., and Rotala ramosior L. Overall, ST plus 50% residue had a more diverse seed bank than CT without mulch. The majority of weed seeds were amassed in the 0–5 cm soil depth of the ST, while most of them were accumulated in the 10–15 cm layer of the CT. The wheat-mungbean-winter rice rotation had a more diverse floristic composition with many more weed species than the monsoon rice-mustard-winter rice rotation. View Full-Text
Keywords: annual weed; conventional tillage; residue mulching; perennial weeds annual weed; conventional tillage; residue mulching; perennial weeds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hossain, M.M.; Begum, M.; Hashem, A.; Rahman, M.M.; Ahmed, S.; Hassan, M.M.; Javed, T.; Shabbir, R.; Hadifa, A.; Sabagh, A.E.; Bell, R.W. Strip Tillage and Crop Residue Retention Decrease the Size but Increase the Diversity of the Weed Seed Bank under Intensive Rice-Based Crop Rotations in Bangladesh. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061164

AMA Style

Hossain MM, Begum M, Hashem A, Rahman MM, Ahmed S, Hassan MM, Javed T, Shabbir R, Hadifa A, Sabagh AE, Bell RW. Strip Tillage and Crop Residue Retention Decrease the Size but Increase the Diversity of the Weed Seed Bank under Intensive Rice-Based Crop Rotations in Bangladesh. Agronomy. 2021; 11(6):1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hossain, Mohammad M., Mahfuza Begum, Abul Hashem, Md. M. Rahman, Sharif Ahmed, Montaser M. Hassan, Talha Javed, Rubab Shabbir, Adel Hadifa, Ayman E. Sabagh, and Richard W. Bell 2021. "Strip Tillage and Crop Residue Retention Decrease the Size but Increase the Diversity of the Weed Seed Bank under Intensive Rice-Based Crop Rotations in Bangladesh" Agronomy 11, no. 6: 1164. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061164

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