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Review

Agronomic Efficiency of Animal-Derived Organic Fertilizers and Their Effects on Biology and Fertility of Soil: A Review

1
School of Environmental Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India
2
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Enrique Eymar and Carlos García-Delgado
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050823
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Healthy in Agro-ecosystems)
Healthy soils are essential for progressive agronomic activities. Organic fertilization positively affects agro-ecosystems by stimulating plant growth, enhancing crop productivity and fruit quality and improving soil fertility. Soil health and food security are the key elements of Organic Agriculture 3.0. Landfilling and/or open-dumping of animal wastes produced from slaughtering cause environmental pollution by releasing toxic substances, leachate and greenhouse gases. Direct application of animal carcasses to agricultural fields can adversely affect soil microbiota. Effective waste management technologies such as thermal drying, composting, vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion transform animal wastes, making them suitable for soil application by supplying soil high in organic carbon and total nitrogen. Recent agronomic practices applied recycled animal wastes as organic fertilizer in crop production. However, plants may not survive at a high fertilization rate due to the presence of labile carbon fraction in animal wastes. Therefore, dose calculation and determination of fertilizer application frequency are crucial for agronomists. Long-term animal waste-derived organic supplementation promotes copiotrophic microbial abundance due to enhanced substrate affinity, provides micronutrients to soils and protects crops from soil-borne pathogens owing to formation of plant-beneficial microbial consortia. Animal waste-derived organically fertilized soils possess higher urease and acid phosphatase activities. Furthermore, waste to fertilizer conversion is a low-energy requiring process that promotes circular bio-economy. Thus, considering the promotion of soil fertility, microbial abundance, disease protection and economic considerations application of animal-waste-derived organic fertilizer should be the mainstay for sustainable agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal waste recycling; organic fertilization; agronomic efficiency; soil health; bio-economy; environmental sustainability animal waste recycling; organic fertilization; agronomic efficiency; soil health; bio-economy; environmental sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhunia, S.; Bhowmik, A.; Mallick, R.; Mukherjee, J. Agronomic Efficiency of Animal-Derived Organic Fertilizers and Their Effects on Biology and Fertility of Soil: A Review. Agronomy 2021, 11, 823. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050823

AMA Style

Bhunia S, Bhowmik A, Mallick R, Mukherjee J. Agronomic Efficiency of Animal-Derived Organic Fertilizers and Their Effects on Biology and Fertility of Soil: A Review. Agronomy. 2021; 11(5):823. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050823

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhunia, Shantanu, Ankita Bhowmik, Rambilash Mallick, and Joydeep Mukherjee. 2021. "Agronomic Efficiency of Animal-Derived Organic Fertilizers and Their Effects on Biology and Fertility of Soil: A Review" Agronomy 11, no. 5: 823. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050823

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