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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Evolving Multiple Resistance to EPSPS, GS, ALS, PSI, PPO, and Synthetic Auxin Herbicides in Dominican Republic Parthenium hysterophorus Populations. A Physiological and Biochemical Study

1
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Edaphology, University of Cordoba, 14071-Cordoba, Spain
2
College of Engineering, Magdalena University, Santa Marta, 470004-Magdalena, Colombia
3
Department of Agronomy, National University of Colombia, 111321-Bogotá D.C., Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040554
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 30 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cross and Multiple-Resistant Weeds to Herbicides)
Two Parthenium hysterophorus populations resistant (R) and susceptible (S) harvested in banana crop from the Dominican Republic were studied. All S plants died when the herbicides were applied at field dose, except with paraquat. For the R population, the order of plant survival was as follows: glyphosate and paraquat > flazasulfuron > glufosinate > fomesafen > 2,4-D. The resistance factors obtained in the dose–response assays showed a high resistance to glyphosate, flazasulfuron, and fomesafen, medium resistance to glufosinate and 2,4-D, and a natural tolerance to paraquat (resistance factor (RF) = 1.0). The I50 values obtained in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), acetolactate synthase (ALS), and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity studies with glyphosate, flazasulfuron, and glufosinate, respectively, were greater in R than in S. The effect of fomesafen was measured by the Proto IX levels, obtaining five times more Proto IX in the S than in the R population. The resistance to 2,4-D in the R was determined by the lower accumulation of ethylene compared to the S population. The studies with 14C-paraquat conclude that the lower absorption and translocation in both the R and S populations would explain the natural tolerance of P. hysterophorus. This is the first case of multiple resistance to herbicides with different mechanisms of action confirmed in P. hysterophorus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parthenium hysterophorus; Dominican Republic; multiple resistance Parthenium hysterophorus; Dominican Republic; multiple resistance
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Palma-Bautista, C.; Hoyos, V.; Plaza, G.; Vázquez-García, J.G.; Rosario, J.; Rojano-Delgado, A.M.; De Prado, R. Evolving Multiple Resistance to EPSPS, GS, ALS, PSI, PPO, and Synthetic Auxin Herbicides in Dominican Republic Parthenium hysterophorus Populations. A Physiological and Biochemical Study. Agronomy 2020, 10, 554.

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