Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microscopic fungi, which commonly contaminate cereal grains. Contamination of small-grain cereals and maize with toxic metabolites of fungi, both pathogenic and saprotrophic, is one of the particularly important problems in global agriculture. Fusarium
species are among the dangerous cereal pathogens with a high toxicity potential. Secondary metabolites of these fungi, such as deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 are among five most important mycotoxins on a European and world scale. The use of various methods to limit the development of Fusarium
cereal head diseases and grain contamination with mycotoxins, before and after harvest, is an important element of sustainable agriculture and production of safe food. The applied strategies utilize chemical and non-chemical methods, including agronomic, physical and biological treatments. Biological methods now occupy a special place in plant protection as an element of biocontrol of fungal pathogens by inhibiting their development and reducing mycotoxins in grain. According to the literature, Good Agricultural Practices are the best line of defense for controlling Fusarium
toxin contamination of cereal and maize grains. However, fluctuations in weather conditions can significantly reduce the effectiveness of plants protection methods against infection with Fusarium
spp. and grain accumulation of mycotoxins.
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