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Open AccessArticle

A Comparison of Selected Biochemical and Physical Characteristics and Yielding of Fruits in Apple Cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.)

1
Chungcheongnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Research Division for Horticulture, 167, Chusa-ro, Shinam-myeon, Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do 32418, Korea
2
Department of Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
3
Department of Dendrology, Pomology and Nursery Production, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Dąbrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznań, Poland
4
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
5
Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań, Poland
6
Chair of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
7
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704 Poznań, Poland
8
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, Balcalı, 01380 Adana, Turkey
9
Department of Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
10
Research Unit “Induced Resistance and Plant Bioprotection”, UPRES EA 4707, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Reims, P.O. Box 1039, 02 51687 Reims CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040458
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
The aim of the research was to determine selected biochemical and physical characteristics and yielding of fruits in apple varieties (Malus domestica Borkh) such as Gala Schniga, Beni Shogun (Fuji) and Ligol, M.9 rootstock growing in the Wielkopolska region, Poland. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed differences both in the profile and contents of soluble sugars and other metabolites detected in fruits of the tested apple varieties. The highest total saccharide content was found in fruits of cv. Gala Schniga, while leaves and shoots of this variety showed the lowest contents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed the lowest contents of semiquinone radicals in apple fruits and the highest in leaves of apple trees. All organs of Schniga Gala apple trees were characterized by the highest levels of these radicals. Besides, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) revealed the highest levels of this molecule in shoots of apple trees, especially the Beni Shogun variety, while in fruits the levels were the lowest. Ligol fruits had the highest content of ABA. The percentage of injury observed after a low-temperature treatment and estimated on the basis of electrolyte leakage, was shown to be the lowest in fruits of the Beni Shogun variety. In turn, the lowest average yield of apple fruits was recorded for the Ligol and Fuji varieties, with the highest in the case of the Gala Schniga variety. At the same time, a significant variability in the average weight of fruits was observed; the highest average mass of fruits was recorded for the Ligol variety, while it was lowest for Gala Schniga. Additionally, firmness evaluation of the fruits revealed that the firmest fruits were harvested from Gala apple trees, before the Beni Shogun and Ligol varieties. A significant variability was recorded in the red blush on fruit surfaces of the tested varieties, with Ligol fruits having the weakest blush. Altogether, these results indicate that fruits of the analyzed apple varieties differed both in terms of their biochemical composition and physical characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Malus domestica; sugars; organic acids; sorbitol; semiquinone radicals; membrane injury index; abscisic acid; fruit yielding Malus domestica; sugars; organic acids; sorbitol; semiquinone radicals; membrane injury index; abscisic acid; fruit yielding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoon, H.-K.; Kleiber, T.; Zydlik, Z.; Rutkowski, K.; Woźniak, A.; Świerczyński, S.; Bednarski, W.; Kęsy, J.; Marczak, Ł.; Seo, J.-H.; Choi, T.-Y.; Kang, K.-J.; Kafkas, N.E.; Bocianowski, J.; Jeandet, P.; Morkunas, I. A Comparison of Selected Biochemical and Physical Characteristics and Yielding of Fruits in Apple Cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.). Agronomy 2020, 10, 458.

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