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Article

Soil Monitoring Methods to Assess Immediately Available Soil N for Fertigated Sweet Pepper

1
University of Costa Rica, Sede Regional de Guanacaste, Liberia 50101, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica
2
Department of Agronomy, University of Almeria, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria, Spain
3
CIAIMBITAL Research Centre for Mediterranean Intensive Agrosystems and Agrifood Biotechnology, University of Almeria, La Cañada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10122000
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Crops Fertigation)
Excessive N application occurs in greenhouse vegetable production. Monitoring methods of immediately available soil N are required. [NO3] in soil solution, sampled with ceramic cup samplers, and [NO3] in the 1:2 soil to water (v/v) extract were evaluated. Five increasing [N], from very N deficient (N1) to very N excessive (N5) were applied throughout three fertigated pepper crops by combined fertigation/drip irrigation. The crops were grown in soil in a greenhouse. Soil solution [NO3] was measured every 1–2 weeks, and extract [NO3] every 4 weeks. Generally, for treatments N1 and N2, both soil solution and extract [NO3] were continually close to zero, and increased with applied [N] for treatments N3–5. The relationships of both methods to the nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), an indicator of crop N status, were assessed. Segmented linear analysis gave R2 values of 0.68–0.70 for combined data from entire crops, for both methods. NNI was strongly related to increasing [NO3] up to 3.1 and 0.9 mmol L−1 in soil solution and extracts, respectively. Thereafter, NNI was constant at 1.04–1.05, with increasing [NO3]. Suggested sufficiency ranges were derived. Soil solution [NO3] is effective to monitor immediately available soil N for sweet pepper crops in SE Spain. The extract method is promising. View Full-Text
Keywords: Capsicum annuum L.; ceramic suction cups; greenhouse; nitrate leaching; NNI; soil solution; soil testing; soil-water extracts; sufficiency values; vegetable crops Capsicum annuum L.; ceramic suction cups; greenhouse; nitrate leaching; NNI; soil solution; soil testing; soil-water extracts; sufficiency values; vegetable crops
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez, A.; Peña-Fleitas, M.T.; Padilla, F.M.; Gallardo, M.; Thompson, R.B. Soil Monitoring Methods to Assess Immediately Available Soil N for Fertigated Sweet Pepper. Agronomy 2020, 10, 2000. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10122000

AMA Style

Rodríguez A, Peña-Fleitas MT, Padilla FM, Gallardo M, Thompson RB. Soil Monitoring Methods to Assess Immediately Available Soil N for Fertigated Sweet Pepper. Agronomy. 2020; 10(12):2000. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10122000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez, Alejandra, M. T. Peña-Fleitas, Francisco M. Padilla, Marisa Gallardo, and Rodney B. Thompson 2020. "Soil Monitoring Methods to Assess Immediately Available Soil N for Fertigated Sweet Pepper" Agronomy 10, no. 12: 2000. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10122000

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