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Open AccessArticle

Yeasts Associated with the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Lead to New Attractants

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Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Put Duilova 11, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Food Science and Technology, Phaff Yeast Collection, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Jeffrey R. Aldrich Consulting LLC, P.O. Box 121, Marcell, MN 56657, USA
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Ctr Excellence Biodivers & Mol Plant Breeding, Svetošimunska Cesta 25, 1000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(10), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101501
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 2 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management of Horticultural Crops)
The olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi) is the primary insect pest in all olive-growing regions worldwide. New integrated pest management (IPM) techniques are needed for B. oleae to mitigate reliance on pesticides used for its control which can result in negative environmental impacts. More effective lures for monitoring olive flies would help to know when and where direct chemical applications are required. The aim of this research was to find new, more effective methods for B. oleae detection and monitoring. Twelve insect-associated yeasts were selected and tested as living cultures in McPhail traps for the attraction of olive flies. Certain yeasts were more attractive than others to B. oleae; specifically, Kuraishia capsulata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Peterozyma xylosa, Scheffersomyces ergatensis, and Nakazawae ernobii, than the industry-standard dried torula yeast (Cyberlindnera jadinii; syn. Candida utilis). The attractiveness of dry, inactive (i.e., non-living) formulations of these five yeasts was also tested in the field. Inactive formulations of K. capsulata, P. xylosa, N. ernobii, and L. thermotolerans were significantly more attractive to B. oleae than commercially available torula yeast. Green lacewing, Chrysoperla comanche (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), adults were incidentally caught in traps baited with the live yeast cultures. This is the first field study that compares olive fly attraction to yeast species other than torula yeast. Commercialization of yeasts that are more attractive than the torula standard would improve monitoring and associated control of the olive fruit fly. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant protection; integrated pest management; agricultural entomology; insect behavior; McPhail trap; lures; torula plant protection; integrated pest management; agricultural entomology; insect behavior; McPhail trap; lures; torula
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Vitanović, E.; Lopez, J.M.; Aldrich, J.R.; Jukić Špika, M.; Boundy-Mills, K.; Zalom, F.G. Yeasts Associated with the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Lead to New Attractants. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1501.

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